College 1 4 februari



Dovnload 108.01 Kb.
Datum18.08.2016
Grootte108.01 Kb.
Samenvatting 1ZV20 Buying Behaviour & Innovation

College 1 4 februari

Approach

Economic man

Pschyco-dynamic

Behaviorist

Cognitive

Humanistic

Foundations

Micro-economics statisctics

Psychology, biology

Psychology

Psychology, sociology, philosophy

Psychology, philosophy

Premises

  • Maximize utility

  • Perfect information

  • Instinctive forces

  • Pleasure (Id) vs. Reality (super-ego principe)

  • Stimulus-response

  • Behaviour explained by external events

  • All things organisms do is behavior

- Stimulus-Organism-Response

- Individual is processor

- Intrapersonal cognition


- Introspective, subjective reality

- Self actualization

- Emotion, volition, egoism/altruism





A need is felt when there is a divergence between the two states (actual and desired)

“An internal state of tension caused by disequilibrium from a desired physical or psychological state.” (Hoyer et al. 2013, p. 49)

• Occurs because of change in actual ordesired state

• Degree of difference determines level of motivation (among others)


Needs


• Are dynamic

• Exist in a hierarchy

• Can be internally or externally aroused

•Can conflict


Why do marketeers (or firms in general) have to know about consumer needs?

• Product development

• Promotion: highlight important product elements

• Positioning: brand image (e.g., phone: functional vs. hedonic)

• Create experiences (product/service bundles)

• Segmentation (e.g., why do you go to the gym?)


How would you identify needs?

Survey, focus group, interview, storytelling, diaries, (field) experiments, conjoint analysis, ethnographic research, neuroscience


Wrap up

• Relationship between marketing and consumer behavior

• Theoretical approaches to consumer behavior

•Consumer Decision Model

•Importance of needs
College 2 11 februari

Information search depends on situational involvement




Elaboration Likelihood Model



  • Two routes to persuasion


• Central cues (grotere, belangrijke aankopen)

• Argument quality

• Product benefits

•Peripheral cues  sfeer creëren (parfum/bier) bijv. model/BN’er in reclamespot

• Attractive, likeable, expert sources

• Positive moods and feelings

•Conclusion: For low-involvement purchases, you do not need to have the best product!


High Involvement

Highly involved customers find fewer brands acceptable and interpret marketing messages in line with their previous experiences. Keep them loyal through relationship management and offers in latitude of acceptance. Uninvolved customers are brand switchers: try special offers. Also consider importance of first-mover advantage. (Als je bijv. een fan bent van Apple producten vind je andere merken niet acceptabel  merkentrouw)




How individuals gather knowledge

• Learning: the process of acquiring…

• Memory: the internal recording of …

… new information and knowledge about products and services.
Classical conditioning

• Stimulus-Response, remember Little Albert

•Behavioral response to specific external stimuli signal that learning has taken place

•Early work by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov


Issues in classical conditioning

•Repetition

• Three hit theory: Awareness – relevance – remind

• Depends on involvement and type of message

•Selective attention  wanneer je ergens op let mis je compleet andere informatie (moonwalkende beer in dat filmpje)
•Stimulus generalization

• How is that used by marketeers?



  • Family brand name: producten lanceren onder zelfde productgroep en onder dezelfde naam: Bavaria 0.0, Bavaria Radler etc.

  • Individual: 1 bedrijf brengt producten op de markt onder verschillende namen (Unilever, P&G) Geen goodwill <-> bij eventuele negatieve reclame blijft de schade beperkt, want allemaal verschillende producten.

  • Copycat branding: met name in vorm kopiëren van A-merken door goedkopere merken

• Stimulus discrimination and just noticeable difference (j.n.d.)

• Weber’s law:

∆I/I =k (k= factor na wanneer verandering opvalt)

•Timing: stronger associations when stimuli are closer in time


Operant conditioning

• Behavior is learned based on rewards and punishments resulting from previous responses

•Trial-and-error

•Early work by psychologist Burrhus F. Skinner (skinnerbox  duiven)


Marketing insight: What operant conditioning practices do marketers use?

• Match product/service to customer needs (e.g. segmentation)

• Delight the customer / go the extra mile

• Relationship marketing: Develop personalized relationship with customer

• Negative reinforcement: remove what individuals do not like when they have performed desired behavior (e.g., no shipping cost when order > 50 euros)

• Reinforcement schedules

• Continuous reinforcement: e.g., reduced first-year fee in mobile phone subscription (begin) & 10% off for long-time customers (end)

• Systematic reinforcement: e.g., 10% off every 5th purchase

• Random reinforcement: e.g., odds at casinos.

• Shaping: provide reinforcement before behavior (e.g., free samples, loss leaders)


Cognitive learning

• Occurs when people interpret information in the environment and create new knowledge or meaning, through

• Direct personal use experiences

• Vicarious product experiences

• Interpreting product-related information

•Schema: the group of associations, or associative network, linked to a concept (Hoyer et al. 2013)

•Can be for people, companies, brands, places, self, etcetera

•Exercise: think about McDonald’s (Brand map)


Consumenten die bekend zijn met het merk leggen veel eerder de link naar het merk zelf dan zij die niet bekend zijn met het merk, zij leggen wel de link naar het concept maar niet naar het merk zelf.
Tool: Brand Concept Mapping (= 1 bepaald merkt of product en jer vraagt mensen associaties te geven en daar maak je een network van)

Elicitation stage  Mapping stage  Aggregation stage


Wrap up

• Information search depends on involvement

• ELM and SJT explain effects of involvement on information processing

•Individuals learn through behavioral and cognitive learning

•Brand concept mapping is a tool to create a brand map
College 3 18 februari

Korte termijn geheugen: 5-9 stukken informative

30-60 sec.

Herhaling  onbewust dingen oppakken


Mnemonics: Taktieken die mensen toepassen om dingen te onthouden bijv. herhaling/associëren met bekende dingen (IKEA reclame)/Chunking: knippen van informatie in blokken (bijv. telefoonnummers).
Lange termijn geheugen bevat schema’s die je bij korte termijn gebruikt om te associëren. Iemand die betrokken is bij een productaankoop kan beter associaties maken en kan dus beter dingen opslaan.
How memory and learned knowledge influence perceptions of new information

• Existing knowledge structures

•Mere exposure effect

•Gestalt psychology: (zien mensen een object als één bepaald ding of als onderdeel van de omgeving?)

• Grouping

• Closure

• Figure-ground relationships (1 afbeelding met 2 voorstellingen)
Tool: Perceptual map

•Product positioning: The act of designing the company's offering so that it occupies a meaningful and distinct position in the target customer's mind

•Perceptual map maps brand against competitors

•Steps


• Identify important product attributes

• Identify customer judgments of existing brands

• Identify "gaps"
Verschil met Brand Concept Mapping: Een bedrijf maakt een BCM alleen voor zichzelf. Perceptual Map brengt de hele markt in beeld en is meer een competitieve tool dan een zelfanalyse.


From memory associations to (dis)liking…



Attitude

• “A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favourable or unfavourable way with respect to a given object.” (book)

• “Overall evaluation of how much we like or dislike an object, issue, person, or action” (Petty et al. 1991)
Generic term
Expectancy-value model

•Beliefs: judgments to what extent an object has a certain attribute (alternatively: the quality of that attribute)

•Evaluations: personal importance of that attribute (alternatively: its weight relative to other attributes)

• Aobj = ∑ni=1 biei

- a.k.a. multi-attribute attitude model, or attitude towards object model

• Aobj= attitude toward the object

• bi= strength of the belief that object has attribute i

• ei= evaluation of attribute i

• n = number of salient beliefs about the object
Modal salient beliefs

•Belief elicitation procedure to determine modal salient beliefs: set of beliefs that are notable and relevant in a given population (Ajzen and Fishbein, 1980)

•Sample people from larger population and for object x:

• List advantages

• List disadvantages

• Any other associations

• Apply categorization

• Select x beliefs or above cut-off percentage


Marketers’ strategies for attitude change:

• change beliefs about extant attributes

• add new attributes

• But recall: how many pieces of information can people process?

• Feature fatigue

• increase importance of strong attributes

• decrease importance of weak attributes

change beliefs about competitor’s attributes


Problem: Not everything is a “feature”

Cognitive component of attitudes: knowledge, meanings, beliefs about features

Affective component of attitudes: emotions, feelings, moods








Pros


Cons

• Shows which features & characteristics ultimately determine purchase and/or use


• Models are compensatory, what if product scores very poor on one aspect?


• Allows for segmentation analysis, because it can be extended with predictors or moderators of interest


• People use cognitive strategies only to a limited extent with low involvement


• Shows the role of social influences => is this a “social” product? Are there network effects?


• Limited to investigate the role of pre-specified variables; what about latent customer needs

and/or really new products?




• Do perceptions of control influence intentions? => education


• Focuses on explaining individual behavior, what about product performance in the market?




Wrap up

• Memory is the internal recording of new information and knowledge about products and services

• Perceptual map shows how a brand is positioned against competitors in consumers’ minds

•The expectancy-value attitude model is a core framework for measuring attitudes, but can be extended with an affective and a conative component


College 4 25 februari

Shortcomings of multi-attribute models

TRA and TPB show what factors determine attitudes and purchase, but

1. Attributes in expectancy value model are compensatory

2. They assume that individuals are highly involved and rationally weigh information

3. Do not inform marketeers on the key factors in NPD

4. Focused on individual, what happens in the market?


What consequences do insight in (each of these) consumer decision rules have for new product development and marketing?

•Lexicographic rule provides information on what drives a consumer: price (buy the cheapest), quality (buy the best), status (buy the most prestigious), etc.

• Conjunctive rule provides inform ation on what drives consumers away from your product

• Cutoff of disjunctive rule or EBA provides information on whether consumers choose a feature (should we excel on one attribute?) or the total package (should we provide a total experience?)

• If there are groups of customers with similar applications of decision rules, this is a basis for segmentation.

Low involvement strategies



3. Information for Marketing & NPD

Consumers do not only think of products in terms of attributes:



Bundle of attributes: Physical characteristics of a product (concrete attributes) as well as more subjective, less tangible characteristics (abstract attributes)

Bundle of benefits: Outcomes that occur when the product is purchased and used. May be immediate and/or tangible (functional consequences), or psychological and/or social (psychosocial consequences)

Products as value satisfiers: Personal, symbolic values that products and brands help consumers achieve. Can be ways of behaving (instrumental values) or preferred states of being / broad psychological states (terminal values)
Means-end chain

Links consumer knowledge about product attributes with their knowledge about consequences and values

• Theory: Consumers’ motivation to buy a product or service depends on whether it is a suitable means for generating pleasant feelings and for gratifying desires
Tool: Laddering

Technique to identify customers’means-end chains.

One-on-one interviews

Step 1: Identify key attributes considered by customers

Step 2: Laddering interview (de hele tijd vragen waarom de consument iets vindt tot je niet meer verder kunt)
What would be the value of having knowledge on customers’ means-end chains for marketers?

What could they DO with it? For instance, in their marketing strategy (price, place, promotion, product)...

• Provides information what people seek from a product => product: work from values to attributes

• Understand key reasons for purchase => may lead to changes in all P’s.

• Identify positive and negative outcomes of attributes at the same time => promotion, if with same customer, otherwise:

• Identify groups of customers with similar in-group and different between-group values => segmentation

• Identify attributes with no connections to consequences

• product: feature fatigue?

• promotion: provide information on attribute AND consequence
4. Adoption vs. Diffusion (Everett Rogers)

Adoption of innovations process

• Focus on individual

• Explained by TAM (among others)

• Key characteristics

• Relative advantage (usefulness)

• Complexity (ease of use)

• Compatibility

• Trialability

• Observability

• Pattern

1. Awareness

2. Interest

3. Evaluation

4. Trial


5. Adoption (or rejection)

Diffusion of innovations process

•Focus on market

•Explained by diffusion curves

•Includes time as key component

•Especially valuable for discontinuous innovation



Why identifying innovators is so

important…


  • Word-of-Mouth (WoM): vertellen over ervaringen

  • Help development (lead users): technische expertise

  • Support others


Wrap up

• Consumer choice rules come in two categories: compensatory and non-compensatory

• There are many low-involvement decision making strategies, too

• The means-end chain links product attributes with consumer knowledge about consequences and values

• Adoption of innovations differs from diffusion of innovations
College 5 Dinsdag 11 maart

Uncertainty

• Decision making researchers: select option (prospect) with highest utility

•Subjectively expected utility theory: SEU(P) = ∑ni=1piU(xi)

Bijv: Consider a choice between two gambles:

A. With a probability of .20, you win €45, otherwise nothing.

B. With a probability of .25, you win €30, otherwise nothing.

Which one would you choose?

SEU(A) = .20 x 45 = 9 | SEU(B) = .25 x 30 = 7.50 => Note that, in fact, we are calculating expected value (EV), rather than SEU.
Rational choice

•Maximizing SEU would be considered a rational choice

• Critique to SEU-approach (Noorderhaven 1995):

• Complete enumeration and evaluation of alternatives is infeasible

• Accurately estimating probabilities is difficult

• Assumes maximizing, but what about satisficing? (reflect on last lecture’s choice rules)

•Model is prescriptive, rather than descriptive, because people use heuristics to simplify uncertain choices

•Bounded rationality: “ People act intentionally rational, but only limitedly so” (Simon, 1957)


Heuristics

•Tools in a person’s cognitive toolbox

•Simple rules of thumb to provide estimates on frequencies, probabilities, and magnitudes (Beach and Connolly 2005; Hastie and Dawes 2010)

Pioneered by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman


Availability heuristic

When making a difficult judgment, we substitute the assessment of an easier, more automatic attribute


Bias of availability heuristics:

•Too much emphasis on salient, recent, vivid, plausible events

• Probably explains why you believe...

• ...to be particularly prone to slow checkout line in supermarket

• ...to get soaked in rain when you don’t carry an umbrella

• ...that athletes are “jinxed” when commentaries praise them prior to an error

• Marketing tactics

• Make important attributes in decisions vivid and very easy to bring to mind, for example with repetition and visual language

• Familiar brands come to mind easily
Wanke, Bohner and Jurkowitsch (1997) study

Er werd gevraagd om 10 redenen op te schrijven om juist wel of juist niet een BMW te kopen ipv een Mercedes. Bij de respondenten die 10 redenen vóór BMW moesten opschrijven, kwam BMW negatiever uit de test dan Mercedes, terwijl BMW bij 1 reden vóór BMW nog positiever beoordeeld werd dan Mercedes. Bij respondenten die 10 redenen tegen BMW op moesten schrijven, kwam BMW positiever uit de test dan Mercedes.



Representativeness heuristic

• When making a difficult judgment, we substitute the assessment of a similar category

•Samples from processes or events should reflect the characteristics of the underlying process
Let’s see how that works...

You see a man walking on TU/e campus. He looks muscular, sun-tanned, and wears white shorts, a t-shirt, and trainers. What do you think this man does for a living?

A.Tennis pro

B.Professor


Je zou denken Tennis pro, maar de kans dat het een professor is, is veel groter aangezien je op de TU bent.
Marketing implications of representativeness

To make something attractive, take something that customers find attractive and then find a way in which they are both similar

• Packaging

• Physical proximity






Anchor-and-adjustment heuristic

When making a difficult judgment, we anchor ourselves to a familiar and/or given starting point


Let’s see how this works...

• Is the population of Nigeria greater than 20 million?

•What is your best estimate of Nigeria’s population?

Answer: +/- 171 million (2.4 % of world population)


•Disproportionate weight to first information received

•Initial/past impressions are anchors


Marketing implications

• Wansink, Kent and Hoch (1998) study

• Multiple-unit pricing  3 for €1.99 => +32% compared to single-unit price-off

• Quantity limits Limit of 4 per person

•Suggestive selling  Buy 8 and save a trip

•Expansion anchors  101 uses!


Met anchor verkoop je meer  blikken soep: Buy 18 for your freezer vs. Buy some for your freezer  1e verkoopt beter! Verschil neemt wel af naarmate korting op product toeneemt.
Apart from using heuristics in “complex” decision situations, we mentally weigh losses and gains
Prospect theory (zie vb hiernaast)

• Classic economics: Law of diminishing returns

•Prospect theory: Decision makers think in terms of gains and losses from his/her status quo (reference point )

• Loss aversion

• When faced with uncertainty, people are risk averse when faced with gains, but risk seeking when faced with losses

• Importance of framing


Game theory

Stream of research that models decisions in the presence of another actor

• Focuses on conflict, negotiation, cooperation, and fairness

• Nash equilibrium: no player can do better by unilaterally changing his or her strategy


Wrap up

• Under uncertainty, people behave boundedly rational

•Availability, representativeness, and anchor-and-adjust heuristics are simple rules of thumb that people use to provide estimates on frequencies, probabilities, and magnitudes

•Prospect theory expands classical economics of diminishing returns by including a reference point and loss aversion


College 6: Dinsdag 18 maart

Organisational buying behaviour

• Professional purchasing: professional buyers with education and experience who know their tasks and responsibilities

• Derived demand: developments in industrial markest are often related to changes in the end-users markets upstream in the value chain

• Inelastic, fluctuating demand: due to the derived demand, price-elasticity in industrial markets is frequently lower than in consumer markets

• Geographical concentration: many industrial markets are geographical concentrated (e.g. Silicon Valley)

• Large order quantities and large amounts of money involved

• Complex decisionmaking with many, different stakeholders

• Limited number of customers: industrial suppliers often supply only a few companies compared to companies that deliver directly to consumers
Discussion:

What are major differences in how cars are purchased

by consumers and by companies in terms of:

• Motives?

• Persons involved?

• Decisionmaking?


Ondanks het feit dat de fasen hetzelfde zijn bij consumer en companie purchasing, is de manier waarop de fasen worden doorlopen heel verschillend.
Is organizational buying behaviorrelevant?

Observations:

• Buying is something most people like to do…

• Buying is something that people think they can do…

• Buying involves a lot of money…

• And a lot of products and services…

• And, most of the time, a lot of people are involved…
Most people confuse professional buying with Shopping… Professional buying requires an effective organizational decision-making and Teamwork!
Organizational buying behaviour

It relates to everything an organization buys…



  1. To sell to other organizations or consumers…e.g. retail products and merchandise…

  2. To produce or assemble final products…e.g. raw materials and components…

  3. To manufacture or deliver products…e.g. investment goods…

  4. To support internal operations… e.g. IT, facility products…financial, legal, accountants services…

Purchasing responsible for majority of total costs

Bijv. Dupont analysis
Managing supplier relationships

Business-to-business marketing, and professional purchasing, require active management of relationships within complex organizational networks


Variables that affect the buying process:

• Characteristics of the product

• Strategic importance

• Sums of money involved

• Characteristics of the purchasing market

• Degree of risk

• Role of the purchasing department in the organization

• Effect of purchase on existing routines


According to Fisher (1970) the purchasing decision-making process is primarly derermined by two aspects: product complexity and commercial uncertainty. If these two aspects are combined, statements can be made about what disciplines will be involved in the decision-making process
Webster and Wind (1972) speak of the buying centre, which they define as ‘all those individuals and groups who participate in the purchasing decision-making process, who share some common goals and the risks arising from the decisions’
Variables that affect the buying decision:

• Task variables: Relate to tasks, responsibilities and competences assigned to a person making the decision

• Non-task variables: Relate to the professional’s personality


• Environmental task-non task constraints

• Organizational task-non task constraints

• Buying center task-non task interaction

• Individual task-non task variables
Return on investment = winst/geïnvesteerd vermogen
DMU

DMU relates to all those individuals and groups who participate in the purchasing decision-making process, who share some common goals and the risks arising from the decisions (identical to buying centre). These might include:

• Users

• Influencers



• Buyers

• Decision-makers

• Gatekeepers
College 7: Dinsdag 25 maart

Arbitrage regeling: elke partij eigen expert  geven advies en dat is bindend


Webster and Wind (1972) speak of the buying centre, which they define as ‘all those individuals and groups who participate in the purchasing decision-making process, who share some common goals and the risks arising from the decisions’
Inkoopprocesmanagement

Purchasing situations

Three types of purchasing situations

New task situation

- Completely new product from unknown suppliers

- High uncertainty regarding outcome

(e.g. acquisition of capital goods)



Modified Rebuy

- New product from known supplier

- Existing product, new supplier

- Moderate uncertainty regarding outcome

Straight rebuy

- Known product from known supplier

- Low uncertainty regarding outcome

- (e.g. consumable items like MRO)


Aspects of the purchasing process

• Business needs are leading: Business needs and requirements are the input for the purchasing process model

• Process approach: the various steps in the model are closely connected and the quality of the output of the preceding steps determines to a large extent the quality of the subsequent steps

• Defining the interfaces: the output of each phase has to be clearly defined, preferably with a document

• Determining responsibilities: purchasing is considered to be a cross-functional responsibility. Therefore, the tasks, responsibilities and authority of the parties involved should be clearly indicated in each phase.

•Combining different skills, different types of knowledge and expertise: key question is how to combine the different types knowledge, skills and expertise in such way that all parties involved arrive at an optimal solution for the company


The added value of the professional buyer lies in the ability to act as a facilitator for the supply process:

• Supporting internal customers in defining purchasing specifications

• Identifying new, potential suppliers and business partners for the company’s changing business needs

• Preparing and carrying out contract negotiations, setting up requisitioning and ordering routines (e.g. through electronic buying catalogues, e-Procurement) in such a way that users can place orders

themselves

• Setting up requisitioning and ordering routines in such a way that the users can place orders themselves

• Place orders at suppliers and maintain and monitor orders, contracts and supplier files

• Monitoring outstanding orders and financial obligations

• Follow up and evaluation of supplier performance and maintaining relevant supplier documentation
Ordering and expediting

Three types of expediting:

• Exception expediting: buyer only takes action when the organization sends out signals of material shortages

• Routine status check: preventing materials supply and quality problems – few days before promised delivery, the buyer contacts the supplier to confirm delivery date

• Advanced status check: for critical purchase parts – a detailed production plan will be handed over to the buyer and during the process the buyer will carry out periodic checks
E-procurement solutions

Forms of E-auctions:

Open Request for information (RFI) / request for proposal (RFP):

– Qualification before auction

– Supplier is invited based on the offer

Reversed auction

– input price determined by buyer

– offers are visible, suppliers can see how far away they are from the best offer

Forward auction:

– Vendor determines the price

– Several buyers announce their offer to the auctioneer
• Most popular method under buyers is the reversed auction:

• High volumes to cover the auction costs

• Sufficient competition

• Equal opportunities for all suppliers

• The buyer has to be interesting for the supplier

• Generally e-auctions realize a cost reduction between 5% and 40%

• Suppliers do not like these methods because their margins will decrease
Major bottlenecks and problems

− Too detailed specification: The specifications of the user are sometimes written to the capabilities of specific suppliers

− Inadequate supplier selection: Failure to check the supplier's (bank) references, can produce very unpleasant surprises like bankruptcy

− Personal relationships: Purchase orders are placed with suppliers with whom the user has a friendly relationship; As a result such suppliers may not be as competitive.

− Contracts are too general, incomplete, drafted up by the supplier or not present at all.

- Too much emphasis on price: Especially buying capital equipment buying decisions need to be based upon total-cost-of-ownership (TCO) rather than on price only

− Poor administrative processes: Putting a sound administrative system in place could lead to significant savings.

− Problems in delivery phase: over time or incomplete delivery, quality problems can put the continuity of the business process in danger.

− Suppliers are not systematically assessed: This results in unprofessional suppliers and repeating problems.
Conclusion

• Industrial buying behavior was discussed from different perspectives:

• Organizational perspective

• Models that regard the interaction between two or more parties

• Purchase process model offers organizations a tool for structuring their purchasing processes.

• E-procurement solutions offer the purchasing professional many opportunities to deal with

problems.
Lecture 7: Public Procurement

Kenmerken van inkoopbeleid in overheidsinstellingen:

• Ondoorzichtig

• Veel stakeholders betrokken

• Vaak conflicterende belangen tussen stakeholders Budgetbeleid

• Instellingen vaak geconfronteerd met het budgetbeleid van de centrale overheid.

• Het is moeilijk financiële reserves op te bouwen en deze naar het volgende jaar door te schuiven.

• De tendens om meer uit te geven dan is begroot, om voor het nieuwe jaar meer uit te kunnen geven

• Budgetbeleid leidt ertoe dat prikkel om te besparen ontbreekt.


Openbare verantwoordingsplicht

• Overheidsinstellingen hebben een openbare verantwoordingsplicht voor hun uitgaven.

• Dit leidt tot bureaucratie waardoor bestelprocedures een omslachtig en traag verloop kennen.

• De meeste inkooporganisaties binnen de overheid zijn meer proceduregericht dan resultaatgericht.



Contractbeheer

• De meeste landen hebben er nog steeds moeite mee de overheidsinkoopuitgaven effectief te beheren en te controleren


Europese richtlijnen voor overheidsaankopen

Richtlijnen voor overheidsaankopen:

• Zijn door de Europese Gemeenschap uitgevaardigd.

• Zijn ontworpen om aanbestedingsprocedures voor overheidsinstellingen te structureren.


Het Verdrag van Rome kent onder meer regelgeving voor overheidsaankopen. Deze verbiedt discriminatie op grond van nationaliteit alsmede vooropgezette beperking van product- dan wel leverancierskeuze. Om deze reden werden de EG Richtlijnen voor het Overheidsinkoopbeleid

ontwikkeld.


Uitgangspunt Verdrag van Rome:

Vrij verkeer van goederen, diensten, kennis, geld en personen tussen lidstaten


Uitgangspunten EG overheidsaanbestedingsbeleid:

Objectiviteit, Transparantie, Gelijkheid, Proportionaliteit


Definities

• Aanbesteden is het proces van inkopen waarbij de opdrachtgever op transparante en objectieve wijze de opdracht verstrekt aan een opdrachtnemer, die voldoet aan bepaalde eisen en die de beste aanbieding heeft gedaan’ (Brackmann (2004), p.19)

• Aanbesteding kan betrekking hebben op:

• Werken


• Producten

• Diensten


Aanbestedingsprocedures:

• Openbare procedure

• Niet-openbare procedure

• Onderhandelingsprocedures

• Prijsvraag

• Concurrentiegerichte dialoog

Aanbestedingsprocedures kunnen betrekking hebben op concrete opdrachten en raamovereenkomsten.
De EG richtlijnen Overheidsinkoopbeleid bevatten de volgende regels:

• Regels over welke overheidsinstellingen moeten werken volgens de richtlijnen en welk type aankopen onder de werking van de richtlijnen vallen

• Overheidsinstellingen

• Openbaar bestuur

• Publieke sector

• Regels over hoe leveranciers moeten worden geselecteerd en de criteria die kunnen worden gebruikt bij gunning in een specifieke situatie.

• Regels over de gunningsprocedure of inkoopprocedure die in een specifieke situatie moeten worden gevolgd.

• Regels over hoe om te gaan met technische specificaties (werken met binnen de EG ontwikkelde technische standaarden geniet de voorkeur).

• Regels over berichtgeving die beschrijven hoe overheidsinstellingen hun voorgenomen aankopen moeten communiceren.
De richtlijnen gelden voor alle commerciële overheids-inkoopcontracten vanaf een bepaalde drempelwaarde…

In de terminologie van de EG:

‘Alle contracten voor geldelijk belang die op schrift zijn gesteld betreffende het inkopen, leasen, huren of pachten, met of zonder optie om te kopen, van producten en diensten’


Europese inkoopprocedures

Naast EG verdrag zijn andere internationale verdragen bepalend geweest voor de regelgeving betreffende Overheidsopdrachten:

• Naast de EG-richtlijnen zijn er de GATT-richtlijnen (General Agreement

on Trade and Tariffs)

• GATT werd in 1996 vervangen door GPA (Governmental Procurement Agreement). De GPA gaat uit van de algemene principes van nationaal beleid, non-discriminatie en doorzichtigheid en sluit nauw aan bij de EG-richtlijnen.

Aanbestedingsprocedures

Verschillende aanbestedingsprocedures

• De openbare procedure

• De niet-openbare procedure

• De gunning via onderhandelen met/zonder voorafgaande aankondiging

• De prijsvraag

• De concurrentiële dialoog


Grondbeginselen

• Schriftelijke communicatie

• Gelijke informatie

• Vragen naar aanleiding van de aankondiging

• Vragen na verzending offerteaanvraag

• Houden van een pre-bid meeting


Publicatieverplichtingen

• Vooraankondigingen:

• Jaartotaaloverzicht leveringen/diensten > 750.000 euro (52 dagen tot 12 mnd voor aankondiging)

• Aankondigingen:

• Officiële publicatie

• Erkenningssysteem opzetten (nuts)

• Vooraankondiging = aankondiging (nuts)

De publicatie van de gunning

• Uiterlijk 48 dagen na gunning van de opdracht

• Uiterlijk twee maanden voor de Nutssector


Bijzondere aspecten:

• Neutrale, niet merk- of leveranciersgebonden technische specificaties

• Prekwalificeren van leveranciers:

• Basis: gelijkheid, transparantie, verbod discriminatie

• Gerelateerd aan grootte van de opdracht

• Bewijsvoering

• Uitsluitingsgronden

• Beroepsbekwaamheid

• Financiële en economische geschiktheid

• Technische geschiktheid
Financiële en economische geschiktheid

a. Jaarverslagen

b. Omzetcijfers

c. Beroepen op draagkracht andere lichamen

- Technische geschiktheid

d. Technische bekwaamheid

− Technische uitrusting

− Kwaliteit personeel

− Kwaliteitszorgniveau en certificaten

e. Aantoonbare ervaring referentielijst

− Ervaring naar aard van de goederen

− Ervaring naar omvang van de opdracht


Keuze beslissingsregels

• (Semi) lexicografische methode

• In volgorde van belangrijkheid van de criteria de slechtste leveranciers laten afvallen

Gewogen factor score methode

• Gewichten * scores subcriteria = score op criterium

• Maken totaalmatrix, horizontaal de leveranciers en verticaal alle criteria, invullen normscores

• Bepalen integrale rangorde

• De slechtste leveranciers laten afvallen

• Outrankingmethode

• Alle offertes worden ten opzichte van elkaar op elk criterium vergeleken.


Na ontvangst van alle voorstellen…

• Hebben we alle informatie en is alles duidelijk?

• Op basis van het meetinstrument de selectiecriteria beoordelen:

• invullen van het score-overzicht

• matrix per criterium, horizontaal de leveranciers en verticaal alle (sub)criteria

• voor alle (sub)criteria wordt aangegeven hoe de aanmeldingen beoordeeld zijn op de meetschaal

• Vaststellen welke leveranciers voldoen
Vormen van laakbaar gedrag

• Corruptie

• Fraude, diefstal en verduistering

• Non-quid pro quo beloften en giften

• Belangenverstrengeling

• Overige onverenigbare functies en activiteiten

• Misbruik en manipulatie van informatie

• Verspilling en wanprestatie



Inkopen binnen de overheid: waar staan we?

Nalevingsmeting (2010. p21-22): De belangrijkste conclusies uit het onderzoek zijn..

1. Er zijn grote verschillen tussen de onderzochte sectoren in de mate van naleving

2. Het aantal Europese aanbestedingen en de aandacht ervoor binnen aanbestedende diensten is toegenomen;

3. Er bestaan verschillen tussen sectoren ten aanzien van de perceptie en invulling van mogelijke oorzaken van (niet) naleving;

4. Een statistisch model toont een verband aan tussen structuurkenmerken, de cultuur voor Europees aanbesteden en de mate van naleving;

5. Een stimulans van buitenaf is veelal een effectieve impuls gebleken voor de verbetering van rechtmatigheid.
Nalevingsmeting 2010 (p. 24): vijf aanbevelingen …

1. Zorg voor een duidelijke definitie van het begrip ‘aanbestedingsplicht’;

2. Vergroot de ervaren meerwaarde van Europees aanbesteden door successen zichtbaarder te maken;

3. Verbeter de cultuur voor Europees aanbesteden binnen een organisatie door voorbeeldgedrag en aandacht van management en bestuur;

4. Differentieer flankerende maatregelen naar de maturiteit van een aanbestedende dienst;

5. Beperk capaciteitsbelemmeringen van kleine aanbestedende diensten door ‘ontzorging’.


European procurement procedures

• Open procedure: Every market party can apply

• Restricted procedure: Focused on pre-selection

• Competitive dialogue: Used in complex projects, investigates which solution best fits the functional specification

• Negotiated procedure with/without contract notice: Announcement on forehand: negotiations about execution and costs possible, with or without a pre-selection

• Design contest: A jury grants the project to one party, the procedure has to be clear and genuine


Procurement process

1. Defining specifications

• Proportionality: inline with the nature of the assignment

• Nondiscriminatory: specifications can not form a trade limitation

• Equality: fair competition allowing a ‘one level playing field among suppliers
2. Supplier selection

• Separation between selection and award criteria

• First evaluate suppliers on exclusion criteria

• Then on suitability criteria

• Inform suppliers when they are not selected for short list
3. Solliciting bids and awarding contracts

• Initial award of the bid

− Based upon lowest price

− Based upon economic offer

• Informing non-selected parties about refusal

• Awarding the contract to the selected supplier


Implications for public procurement

• Resistance against procedures from governmental purchasers

• Successful implementation of European legislation calls for clearly structured purchasing processes and a professional organization

• Management culture in governmental institutions are causing problems

• Examination on correct application of these procedures is needed

• European Procurement Procedures have been developed without looking at current position and competences of purchasing function…


Conclusions

• Procurement within the government concerns a lot of money.

• The EU Treaty has significant implications for public procurement.

• Public procurement primarily serves political objectives and plans.

• Contracting authorities need to respect European financial thresholds.
College 8: Supply base management Dinsdag 1 april

‘Competition is eternal. There is no such thing as winning. There is no end to the game. Even if you compete and win today, you must compete and win tomorrow’


• Competition between enterprises is based upon the belief that sustainable, product related competitive advantages are unlikely to be developed...

• Future competition will not be among individual companies... shareholder value will be determined by competitiveness of integrated supply chains...


Lessons from Heineken case…

• Suppliers do not automatically think in the interest of their clients…

• Understanding supply market dynamics crucial when making moves towards supply chain management…

• Intregrating suppliers in your business processes requires strong business position…


Question: How to develop supply base management?
Purchasing Excellence Model

Prof dr Robert Monzcka, Michigan State University…

• Initiator of the The Global Procurement and Supply ChainBenchmarking Initiative…

• And inventor of the Purchasing Excellence Model




Monczka revisited: Four stages in developing Leveraged Purchasing and Supply Strategies…

Stage 1 Opportunity Seeking

Stage 2 Supplier Portfolio management

Stage 3 Supply Resource Management

Stage 4 Value Chain Management


First wave: Opportunity seeking

• Identify and analyse purchasing spend

• production related

• non production related

• Cost Down Programmes

• contract review

• competitive bidding



Result: purchasing savings + supply base reduction



Second wave: PORTFOLIO MANAGEMENT

• Develop article/commodity group strategies

• Adopt commodity/buying team approach

• Develop sourcing strategies

• Develop leveraged purchasing strategies

• Corporate, business driven initiatives

• Searching globally for best-in-class suppliers
Result: Sustainable cost reductions + preferred business relations



Sourcing plans to be developed for each spend category…
Doel van een sourcing plan

Bepalen voor een bepaalde productgroep, uitgaande van de van kracht zijnde ndernemingsstrategie

en daarop gebaseerde inkoopdoelstellingen:

• Het aantal leveranciers met wie men zaken wil gaan doen

• Het pakket aan prestatie-eisen waaraan deze leveranciers moeten voldoen

• Land van herkomst resp. geografische spreiding van de leveranciers

• Aard van de relatie die men wenst na te streven

• Type contract dat men wenst af te sluiten

• Wijze waarop leveranciers zullen worden beoordeeld

Een sourcing strategie geeft per productgroep of inkoopsegment inhoud aan deze aspecten…


Geef aan:

• Welke meetbare resultaten u met uw sourcing strategie gaat nastreven in termen van…

• Kostenverlaging

• Kwaliteitsverbetering

• Doorlooptijdverkorting

• Voorraadverlaging

• Verlaging transactiekosten

• Vermindering werkkapitaal

• Etc.

Geef aan:



• Met hoeveel leveranciers u zaken denkt te gaan doen

• Aan welke eisen deze leveranciers moeten voldoen

• In welke landen u gaat sourcen

• Aard van de relatie die u wenst na te streven

• Samenwerking

• Concurrentiestelling

• Type contract dat u wenst af te sluiten

• Wijze waarop leveranciers zullen worden beoordeeld (KPI’s)


Illustreer uw strategie aan de hand van inkoopportfolio….
Portfolio management in purchasing

ABC analysis

A-items:

• 20% of items- 80% of spend

B-items:

• 30% of items- 15% of spend

C-items:

• 50% of items-5% of spend

ABC analysis does not recognize the purchased items’s risk and strategic value





Making it happen…

1 Establish globally integrated and aligned purchasing and supply chain strategies + plans

2 Develop organization and teaming strategies

3 Deploy globalisation

4 Develop purchasing and supply measurement and reward system

5 Develop and implement enabling IT-systems

6 Establish Human Resource policy and training
By implementing advanced purchasing and supply chain strategies and putting key enablers in place at the same time, sustainable competitive advantages can be realized
Conclusions

• Gap between leading edge and back end companies in the area of

purchasing and supply is still widening...

• Many models on how purchasing and supply should develop

available…practitioners and managers are reluctant to apply them…

• Process of change in purchasing and supply management is often

opportunity driven; the questions is how to make it sustainable...

• Systematic development of leveraged purchasing and supply strategies

requires different steps…

• opportunity seeking

• leveraging purchasing

• business resource management

• value chain integration

• Purchasing must become supply resource management...

• Consistently develop your purchasing power vis-à-vis your major suppliers…

• Challenge your suppliers to support your product/market strategies and customer value proposition…

• Superior information systems needed to integrate your supplier into your business processes…

• Superior training and management development required in order to make purchasing and supply a corner stone of your company’s competitive strategy…



• Professionalising purchasing and supply management requires drastic changes in organisational structure, ways of working and culture…



De database wordt beschermd door het auteursrecht ©opleid.info 2017
stuur bericht

    Hoofdpagina