Horizons in buddhist psychology



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HORIZONS IN BUDDHIST PSYCHOLOGY

Practice, Research & Theory
Chief Editors: M.G.T Kwee, K.J. Gergen, & F. Koshikawa
Taos, New Mexico: Taos Institute Publication 2006
Contributors:

Richard Amodio – Peter Bankart – Aaron Beck – Henk Barendregt – Michael DelMonte – Danielle Duggan – Kenneth Gergen – Fabio Giommi – Tenzin Gyatso (Dalai Lama) – Jane Henry – Dian Hosking – Yasutomo Ishii – Yoshinori Ito – James Jones – Rieko Katsukura – Rika Kawano – Belinda Khong – Fusako Koshikawa – Herman Kief – Jean Kristeller – Ayako Kuboki – Noriko Kubota – Maurits Kwee – Kaneo Nedate – Miguel Quintana – Padmal de Silva – Paul Soons – Genji Sugamura – Yoshinori Sugiura – Masao Suzuki – Marja Taams – Dennis Tirch – Michael Tophoff – Paul van der Velde – Michael de Vibe – Adeline van Waning – Scott Warren – Mark Williams
CONTENTS
Preface: Yutaka Haruki

Acknowledgments by TSCM
Foreword 1: Jan Beskow & Astrid Palm Beskow

Foreword 2: Michael J. Mahoney
GENERAL INTRODUCTION
Editorial / INTRODUCTION:

Ch 1 Report on ‘The 14th Dalai Lama and Aaron T. Beck in public dialogue’, complemented by Dr. Beck’s reflections – TSCM Editorial Board

Editorial / PRACTICE:

Ch 2 Buddhist Psychology: A review of practice and theory based on Theravada – Padmal de Silva

Ch 3 Mindfulness, compassion, and opening the cognitive gap: Working with anger – Peter Bankart

Ch 4 Finding the Middle Way: A multi-domain model of meditation in the treatment of compulsive eating – Jean Kristeller & James Jones

Ch 5 Beyond mindfulness: Applications of Buddhist Psychology to Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder – Dennis Tirch & Richard Amodio

Ch 6 Zen Buddhist meditation, ancient source for new Cognitive-Behavior Therapy techniques – Herman Kief

Ch 7 Emotional changes in Buddhist Psychology and in Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy – Paul Soons

Ch 8 Exploring the mind: A psychotherapist’s view on Buddhist Psychology and defensive conditioning – Adeline van Waning

Ch 9 Role of body and awareness in the process of changing cognitive and emotional functioning: a case report – Noriko Kubota
Editorial / RESEARCH:

Ch 10 Zen Buddhist thought and psychology: Some experimental findings – Fusako Koshikawa & Yasutomo Ishii

Ch 11 A cognitive-behavioral approach based on Zen Buddhism: Effectiveness of Shikanho – Fusako Koshikawa, Ayako Kuboki & Yasutomo Ishii

Ch 12 Mindfulness in general practice: Evaluation of a follow-up study – Michael de Vibe

Ch 13 Mindfulness: Challenges to the cognitive-behavioral approach, an outcome study – Fabio Giommi

Ch 14 The influence of mindfulness/zazen on depression: Evaluation by

metacognitive awareness – Yoshinori Ito, Rieko Katsukura & Kaneo Nedate

Ch 15 Development of the Japanese version of the ‘Measure of Awareness in Autobiographical Memory’ – Rieko Katsukura, Yoshinori Ito & Kaneo Nedate

Ch 16 Correlates of mindfulness: The Big Five and attentional control – Yoshinori Sugiura

Ch 17 The outcome of mindfulness-training by the method of Sensory Awareness – Michael Tophoff

Ch 18 Inner paths in outer settings for psychological restoration: Benefits of a wellbeing tourist program – Miguel Quintana

Ch 19 Effectiveness of 'spiritual' and 'therapeutic' strategies: Experients perceptions of long-term benefit – Jane Henry
Editorial / THEORY:

Ch 20 Social Construction, Buddhism, and Relational Being - Kenneth Gergen & Dian Hosking

Ch 21 The Buddha’s teaching in psychotherapy: Augmenting Cognitive-Behavior Therapy with Buddhist Psychology – Belinda Khong

Ch 22 The Abhidhamma model of consciousness (AMo) and some of it consequences – Henk Barendregt

Ch 23 Cultivating the Buddhist Eight Sacred Paths to manage anger in Japanese youngsters – Rika Kawano & Masao Suzuki

Ch 24 Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and embodied cognition –

Mark Williams & Danielle Duggan

Ch 25 Constructivist, Social Constructionist, and Buddhist psychotherapies: A Dissolution-Oriented Approach – Genji Sugamura & Scott Warren

Ch 26 Lose thy mind and come to thy senses – Michael DelMonte

Ch 27 Navayana and Upaya: The Buddhist Dharma as a ‘new’ medicine –Paul van der Velde
Editorial / INTEGRATION:

Ch 28 The New Buddhist Psychology: Gateway to the further side of

Theravada and Mahayana – Maurits Kwee & Marja Taams

Chapter 13

Mindfulness: Challenges to the cognitive-behavioral approach
Fabio Giommi

Abstract

This chapter consists of two parts. The first provides some general considerations and introduces the second, a comparison study on mindfulness training as an effective component in treating emotional disorders.

Part I. Mindfulness approaches challenge some basic tenets of clinical cognitivism. Firstly, the pivotal aspect in the therapeutic process seems to be ‘deautomatizing-disidentifying’ rather than changing attitudes, schemas, etc. To escape automaticity, patients learn to relate to experiences as mental events within a field of awareness. Secondly, a question is posed by mindfulness approaches: is there a non-conceptual way of conscious knowing? Mindfulness is spoken of as ‘insight meditation’ (i.e. ‘a non-conceptual and penetrating seeing into the nature of mind’; Kabat-Zinn (2003). Such non-conceptual ‘seeing’ is a form of knowing not yet recognized in any cognitive model of mind, and results as the key factor in reducing dysfunctional automaticity.

Part II. F. Giommi, H. Barendregt, L. Oliemeulen, J. van Hoof, J. Tinge, A. Coenen, and P. van Dongen conducted a randomized controlled trial. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) was compared to Psychoeducation (PE, a standard psychiatric intervention) in a sample of patients with emotional disorders. Assessments were made on symptoms reduction (5 scales of depression, anxiety, quality of life) and attentional functioning (6 neuropsychological tasks, EEG recordings). MBSR was found at least as efficacious as PE. Preliminary results suggest that MBSR exerts a positive effect on attention. To date no comparison with an established intervention has been performed: this was the first exploratory study on such issue, and the first to consider the specific effects of mindfulness on attentional processes. New confidence is gained in applying MBSR as an effective component in treating emotional disorders.

Part I: Introduction and some general considerations



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