Incipit Auraicept na nEges i. eraicept



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(1,1) for­chaemnacair and .i. cumtach in tuir Nem­ruaid.


In Neamruadh sin tra trenfhear sil Adaimh uile in[a] aimsir e, Neamruadh mic Cuis mic Caimh mic Noe.


Ni bai iaramh aenrigh for in doman gu haim­sir Nin mic Bel, acht mad comhairlidhe 7 toisig nama badar and go sin anall.

Da comhairlidh [110] sechtmogat iaramh robadar isin domun isin aimsir i // ndernad in tor. Ba he dno in dara comairlib sechtmogat Neamruad. Trenfear sidhe dno 7 fer an i selg .i. for aigibh 7 fiadhuch .i. for mila muige 7 arrcheasaib .i. for mucaib alltaib 7 fornelaib .i. for enaib.
Co mbidis sochaidi [115] do dhainibh ica leanmain samlaidh, co mba lia .i. hi slogh­aib 7 co mba nertmairi oldas comhairlid samh­laidh.

Conid he dorimtas (.i. ro­ti­­­­­­­­­­­­­­m­airg) na da comairlib sechtmogat sin i n-aencomairli do dhenum in tuir la hua brathar a athar .i. la hiarmo der[b]brathar a shenathar .i. la Fallec mac [120] Ragua mic Arfaxat mic Sem mic Noe.

7 ba he sen in dara comairlib sechtmogat cena go sin. Et asberatsomh iarum co mad aencomairlib 7 inann tuismidh doib uile in Faillec.

Is imchomarc sund anmanda na da fhear sechtmogat lais a ndernad in tor, acht chena ni airmed [125] scribenda acht anmanda na seacht fear ndeg ba haireg[d]u dib .i. Faillec, Neamruad, Eber, Latinus, Riabad Scot, Nabgodon, Assur, Ibath, Longbardus, Bodbus, Brittus, Germanus, Garath, Scithius, Gotius, Bardanius, Sardain.

Acht chena is e in cetri iar ndilind iar n-aicniud .i. Neam[130]ruadh. Is e sin in cetri iar n-ela­dhain in Fallec remraite. Is e dono iar n-ugdaracht .i. Nin mac Bel mic Ploisc mic Pluliris mic Agomolis mic Fronosis mic Gitlis mic Tiris mic Assuir mic Semh mic Noe. Atcotaidhi-seom dno anni sin.

Et asberat Neamruadh co mbad a ainmseomh [135] forbeith in gnima sin. Adrodamas (.i. rodaimed) dno dosom anni sin.


Tredhe didiu ara ndernad la claind nA-daim cumdach in tuir sin .i. ar imuamhan na dileand duridhisi, //
7 do dul for neamh doib ‘na corpaib don talmain,
7 d’ur­dair­ciu­gud a n-anmandh dia n-eis.
Conid de sin asbert [140] Righ nimhi fri muin­tir nimi: Venite ut uideamus 7 confundamus lingas eorum .i. tait co rofegam 7 gu romelachtnaighem berla innani sin.

Ba mor tra cumachta sil Adaimh 7 a nneart isin aimsir sin ic denum in tuir, co festais iaramh [in] robhae cumachta righ nimhi uaso, conru[145]ammesc-sen .i. conremesc impu.

In tan asberad neach dib fri aroili ‘tuc damh cloch’, ba crand doberead.

.i. Na lecca forsa suaitea in chre 7 na forchai dia suaitea, is iat sin croind 7 clocha no-imluaighdis eturru.


Doladar tra filid asin Scithia riab cianaib iarsna gnimaib-sea du [150] cuingidh fogluma na n-ilberla icon tur, air dorumenadar (.i. rotoimtnigedar .i. dodochusaigedar) magen asa fordailte 7 i [n-]arnechta na hilberla do shil Adhaimh, romeartis and iarna comlani.

Dolodar iaramh gu mag Seannair dochum in tuir .i. mag n-Ucna no mag nDo­raimh [155] i n-iartharthuascert maigi Sennair, ainm sondrudach na rrindi forsata in tor. Coigiur ar sechtmoga[i]t a lin na filed .i. fear gach berla 7 na tri saidhi .i. sai gach primhberla dona tri primhberlaib .i. Eabra 7 Greic 7 Laidean. Ceithri berla sechtmogat as gach berla dib-sen, is ed rofadlad and.
[160] Fenius Farrsaid, is ed ba hainm a tuisigh,

7 ba sai sen isna primberlaibh (cid siu na-tisad a tuaid asin Scithia). Is e fath ara cuirther primhdhacht i lleith na tri mberla sin ara med do eladhnaibh dorighnedh estib // 7 arin cumasc rocumaiscit tri gach mberla, no dno is [165] arin titul roscribad estib ‘na triur i clar na croiche.

O na fuair Fenius comhlainius na mberladh icon tur, forfodhail a scoil 7 a desciplu fo chai­thre­cha 7 fo cennadcha in talman ar gach leath du fhoghlaim na mberla
7 rosn-othrastar Fenius etir biathadh 7 et­ghudh i cen [170] badar oca fhoghlaim .i. secht mberla.

7 anais Fenius icon tur 7 adro­treb co torracht a scol ina dochum di cach aird, 7 bai ic forcedul hilchenel in domain icon tur inn ead sin.


Conad de sin asbert i curp libair: (1,7 = 1041/2) is and roan Fenius fadesin icon tur 7 is and [175] adrothreabh.


Asberat aroili auctair ni raibi neach di cloind Ionan mic Iafeth mic Noe, dia roghenedar Greic 7 dia rochin Fenius, ic cumtach in tuir.
Debthir on, ar ni raibi cland etir ic Ionan no ni raibi fen in mac sin oc Iafeth, ut Hironymus dixit.

Cest, [180] caite genelach Feniusa? Ni ansa. Farrsaidh didiu mac Baath mic Magogh mic Iafeth mic Noe. No Fenius Farsaidh mac (Eogain mic L) Glunfind mic Laimfind mic Etheoir mic Agno[ma]in mic Toe mic Boinb mic Semh mic Mair mic E­­t­­­­­­­­­hecht mic Aurtecht mic Abodh mic [185] Aoi mic Ara mic Iara mic Sru mic Esru mic Boath mic Riafath mic Gomer mic Iafeth mic Noe 7rl. (cf. 1,11)



Et dno i[s] Sgithegdha Fenius 7 cuga berthar Scithi 7 Gothi iarna ngenelchaib. Et robadar sil Nae ar ceana.

Berla nEbraidi ‘na tengtha robai isin domun ri araile cumh[190]dach in tuir [.i. Gorthigernd L], 7 is ed dno bhias iar // mbrath. 7 asberat araile co mbad eadh nobeth la muintr nimhe.

Iar tiachtain tra dona desciplaib co Fenius o foglaim 7 iar taispenad a cuarta (.i. a n-imdeachta) 7 a ngresa (.i. a foghluma),
is andsin conaitchitar [195] gusin saidh (.i. gu Fenius) berla na beth oc neach eliu do thebiu doibh asna hilberlaib acht comad acco a n-aenur nobeth, conad airi sin conairneacht doib in berla tobaidhi cona fortormaigib .i. berla Feni 7 iarmberla 7 a mberla n-edarscartha eter na fedhaib airegdhaibh amal duiruirmi [200] isin Duil Feadha Mair 7 berla na filed asa n-acaillit cach dib aroile 7 a ngnathberla fogni do cach o ilcenela.
Goedeal mac Etheoir mic Toe mic Baracaimh di Grecaib in dara sai robai i coemtect Feniusa, conad uadh rohainmnigead Gaedealg .i. ealg airdirc in sin .i. Gaedheal [205] ros-irdarcaistar.

Gaedeal dno glas mac Agnoin no Aingin mac senbrathar athar do Fenius, 7 ba sai sen dno cid he.

Is esside dorothlaigestar a mberla-sa gu Gae­dheal mac nEitheoir, conid Gaedealg o Gae­del mac Etheoir. Et Gaedil o Gaedhel mac Agnon no Aingin.

Berla Feni tra arricht [210] sund 7 iarmberla 7 berla n-edar­scartha etir na feadhaib 7 berla na filed a ceath­ramad 7 an gnathberla fogni do chach a coiced.


Fenius Farsaidh tra mac Eogein 7 Iar mac Nema 7 Gaedel mac Etheoir na tri saidh doreipsead na berlu-sa 7 apud Eotenam (uel Athena) ciuitatem arrictha.
[215] Cest, caidhead a n-anmandh na da chenel sechtmogat o rofoghlaimet na hilberlae? Ni ansa.

Beithin, Scithi, Scuit, Germain, Meid (no Moid), Sicil, Hircain, Guit, // Point, Morain, Lugoil, Circir, Gailli, Paimpil, Luidi, Oigii, Ciclaid, Creit, Corsic, Sardain, Sicil, Reit, Reicil, Roid, [220] Romain, Inair, Massail, Mair, Maigidon, Morcain, Nairn, Narmais, Narboin, Norith, Nobith, Barais, Bethain, Bretain, Boid, Maguich, Armoin, Amuis, Goircc, Galaid, Achid, Athain, Taeasail, Ardair, Alain, Albain, Hircain, Itail, Esbain, Goith, Guith, Gruind, Sarain, Frainc, Freisin, [225] Long­baird, Lacdemoin, Lodain, Essill, Tracdai, Troiannai, Dordain, Dalmait, Dacia, Ethioip, Egept, Bramain, Innecdai.

It e sin tra anmanda na da cenel sechtmogat lasa mbadar na da berla sechtmogat.

Fer gach berla tra dona berlaibh-sea,

ba he lin na scoile 7 tri suidh, 7 rofaided [230] gach fear dib fria berla,

(cit. 1,4 = 1037/1038) 7 ni cach comceniuil do­chuaidh and do­chum a comcrichi dun fhogh­laim sin acht is cach comberlaidh.

(cit. 1,4 = 1037/1038) amal rogab Cai Cainbrethach, dalta Feniusa, indara descipul sechtmogat na scoili.

(cit. 1,6 = 1040/1041) Ba do Ebraib a bunadhus 7 ba co hEgeftagda rofaidhedh,

fobith is and [235] robatar a tusdidhe 7 ba hand rodn-alt 7 tuargabat fodesin as [a] aetidh,

conid desin asbeir-som i curp libair .i.

(cit. 1,4 = 1037/1038) Is cach comberlaib dochuaid and 7 ni cach comcheneoil ­­­­­do­­­chum a chriche.

Seacht mbliadna tra robatar na descipuil forsin cuairt 7 teora bliadna doib ic taispenad a ngresa i fus iar [240] tiachtain, comdar a deich samhlaidh, conid desin asbeir-som this i curp libhair:

(cit. 1,3 = 1036/1037) A cind deich mbliadan iar scailiud doib on tur

for gach leath durebeadh doib am berla-sa.


Bai tra cuigiur ar XX ba huaisliu dib. It e a // n-anmanda foratait feadha 7 taebomna in ogaim. It e and-[245]seo a n-anmand .i.
Babel, Loth, Foraind, Saliath, Nabgadon;

Hiruad, Dabhid, Talamon, Cae, Kaliap;


Muiriath, Gotli, Gomers, Stru, Ruben;

Achab, Oise, Urith, Essu, Iachim;

Ethrocius, Uimelicus, Iudonius, Affrim, Ordines.

Iss iat sin anmand in choigir ar XX ba huaisliu bai i [250] scoil Feniusa.

Asberait araili dno is i sin in aipgitir arricht isind Achaidh 7 ic tochur Inbir Moir arranig Amairgin mac Miled in mbeithi-luis in oghaim.

Cia litir, cia nin, cia son in nach forbaider focol? .i. dinin disoil no fern.

Is cia son ger fogabar o nach fuach [255] tren tindscanar? .i. ernin getal.

Na coic feadha aireghdai immorro inn oghaim, ba hon choiciur ba huaisliamh dib rohainmnighthea ‘* * * * * a o u e i’. (= Rec. C 496/498 / 2565/2567)

Asberat araile dno it VII feadha aireghdha filet and 7 is on morshesiur ba huaisleam and rohainmnigthea 7 it e in dana fidh [260] duformaighet frisna cuic feda ugut ‘* * ea oi’. (= Rec. C 500/504 / 2567/2570)

Cest, caidet [airme L] cinnteacha tuir Nemruaidh? Ni ansa. A VIII: .i. da comairlibh sechtmogat, da descipul sechtmogat, da chenel sechtmogat na ndaene, da berla sechtmogat du berlaibh ina scoil, da thuaith sechtmogat [265] lasa m[b]atar na berla sin 7 na cenela, da saer sechtmogat fria gnim, da aic[dh]i sechtmogat eter ael 7 bitumain 7 talmain 7 tathluib ina comhegur, da cheim for sechtmoga[i]t inna leitheat amal asbert:


Airimh in tuir togaidhi (etc. - 270/292 skipped)
Asberat araili immorro is noi n-adhbair nama badar isin tur .i. cre 7 uisgi, oland 7 fuil, ros 7 ael 7 sechim 7 lin [295] 7 bitumain, de quibus dicitur:
Cre, uisgi, oland is fuil,

Ross is ael is lin lanchuir,

Sechim, bitumain go mbuaidh,

Nai n-adhbair in tuir Nemruaidh.



[300] .i. ainm 7 pronomen 7 briathar 7 doibriathar 7 ranngabthach 7 comfhocul 7 reimshuidhiughudh 7 interiacht a n-anmanda-seo: Nomen, pronomen, uerbum, aduerbium, participium, coniunctio, prepositio, interiectio .i.

cetpearsu uathaid - sum .i. ataim



[305] persa tanaisti huathaid - es .i. ata tu

treas persa uathaid - est .i. ata se

cetfear illda - sumus .i. atamait

persa tanaisti - estis .i. ata sibsi

tres ersa - sunt .i. atait

[310] sum, es, est, a uathad

sumus, estis, sunt, a illda. // (300/311: from 316/327)
(Rec. B: 63/78 before 1,1 Ahlqvist)

Caidi log 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tugait scribind in Uraicepta? Ni oenlog tra lasna cethri libro, amal atbert in fili: [65] ‘a n-as tuiseach is ed is deghenach, a n-as dedhenach, is ed as toisseach’ .i. a n-as toisseach iar n-urd lebhurda, is ed as dedhenacho arricht .i. lebor Cindfaeladh mic Oilella.

Log 7 aimser 7 perso 7 tucait scribhind in libhuir sin Cindfaeladh. Log do Daire Luran, aimser do aimser Dom[70]naill mic Aeda mic Ainmireach, perso do Cendfaeladh mac Oilella, tugait a scribind a hinchind dermait du beim a cind Chindfaelad i cath Muighi Rath.

Ceithri buadha in catha sin: Maidm for Conghal ina gaei re nDomnall ina firindi; et Suibni i ngealtacht, acht is ara mhed du [75] laidib duroni; in fear d’ Alba­­­­nach­aib do breith in Erennaich ‘na chois dar muir gen airiugudh .i. Dubhdiadh a ainm; et a inchind dermaid du bhem a cind Cindfaeladh ara mhed do fhilideacht 7 do bhriathraibh 7 do legeand rothaisigh.

(2,1) Ataat di ernail forsin apgitir Laitindai, .i. guttai 7 consona.
Atait .i. sunt a frithindleadach Latinda .i. a bunadh forleathan: totus a bunadh ruidleasa [315] .i. dearbadh in sein .i. freagra du thoit na haibgitrech dobeir sund.

Coich raind indsce in focul is ‘sunt’? Ar itat VIII randa insci and .i. nomen, pronomen, uerbum, aduerbium, participium, coniunctio, prepositio, interiectio.

It e a n-anmand lasin Laitneoir; ainm 7 briathar 7 [320] pronomen 7 doibriathar, randghabthach 7 remshuidhiugud, comhfhocul 7 interiacht ocon Gaedel.

Is denim eimh conidh briathar in focul is ‘sunt’;

7 ma seadh, cia ball in brethir? Air itait amh a tri i n-uathad .i. sum es est, 7 a tri i n-illda .i. sumus estis sunt,

.i. cetperso in [325] uathaid sum, perso thanaisti in uathaid es, tres perso in huathaid est; cetperso in illda sumus, perso thanaisti estis, tres perso in illda sunt.


(2,1) Attaat .i. ata ae i n-ait .i. ata ae dligidh i n-ait in ollaman a inne; no attaat .i. ata ae uait, ar in [330] descipul frisin maigistir.
A inne beos, attaat a tuitead doaitneat doaigbead dotiagat. A airbert, .i. atat i n-aigniudh na guttaighi 7 na consaini. Dotuitead i litrib .i. tinntuit asinn aicniud sin i llitrib.

Doaitnead, .i. taitnit, asna litrib sin i foclaib. [335]

Doaidhbead, .i. du-aispenait, do eolchaib eistib .i. a cialla 7 a caireachtaire .i. fuatha na liter.

Dotiaghat asna foclaib sin i comighib 7 i sreathaib roscaigh 7 fasaigh 7 airchetail. //

(2,1) Da ernail

.i. da fhirinnell no da fhir-inaill no da fhir-dhual no da erdhul no da erdhail no da erdhual [340] no da orru-dhul no da orru-dhedhail no da orru-dhail.


Iss iat sin a tri ‘or’ 7 a tri ‘er’ 7 a tri ‘fir’ nUraiceapta.
Cadiad da dual 7 tri duail 7 cethri duail 7 coic duail in Auraiceapta? Ni ansa. Lanfogur 7 defogur da dual na nguta. Leathguta ocus mudi 7 tinfeadhaigh[345]the tri dual na conson.

.i. Intan is a ceathair immorro, .i. da dual na nguta 7 da dual na conson .i. leathguta e 7 muiti, air is muit ‘h’.

Intan is a coic dno, .i. da dual na nguta 7 tri dual na consan.

(2,1) Forsin n-aibgitir .i. forsind epe audair, no forsind epe ic [350] duar .i. ic foclaib no forsin epi ic tur,

no ondi as apigitorium .i. in tinnscedul,

no is ed aibgiges a mbescna do chach, no aipgitir .i. abcor,

no is ed aipgiges a Gaedhelg, incipit a Laitin, apix a Greic, a be ce de dybum a Ebra.

(2,1) Latindai .i. luaidit inni .i. inna foclu, no a Laidinta .i. on Latindacht .i. a latitudine .i. on leithet in bescna, no o Latin mac Puin.


(2,1) Edon .i. ed a oen erniud, no ed a oen an eolaig.

(2,1) Gutta .i. guth fota .i. fotha in gotha in sein, no guth fuiti iarsani fuidhit gotha treothu,

no guth seta [360] iarsinni at seta gotha, ut Priscianus dixit: Litera quassi legittima eo quod iter legendi prebeat .i. in litir amal intech legend iarsinni fuires set in legend,
no guth aite .i. doghniat // guth i n-aitt,

no guthetait .i. iarsinni doetait guth treothu a n-aenur,



ut Donatus dixit: Vocales sunt quequidem pro[365]fertur et per se sillabam faciunt .i. atat na guthacha is iat-side dourgbad treothu fein 7 dogniat sillaib a n-aenur.

(2,1) consain .i. cain suin .i. suin taitnemcha, no consain onni is consonantes comhfhograightheacha .i. fograigit malle fri guthacha. No consain .i. com a sain .i. tercfograigh[370]theacha ar bec a fogair a n-aenar.


Cid ara n-eibert-sium ‘(2,1) guta 7 consain(= 316), uair guta uathaid 7 consain ilda? Ni ansa. Guttai 7 consain is maith and.

Cidh ara n-ebairt ‘guta guth fotha no guta guth fuidhit’ (= 358/9), ar ni fotha in guth do fein, 7 ni fuigheand guth trit fein.

Cid ara nd-ebairt-[375]sium ‘consain comfograighthid’ (= 367/8), uair ni comhfhogur in consain fria fein no fria guth?

Cest, caite in condelg in etechtu in cheternail ind Auraicept[a]? Ni ansa. Fors is fer[r] a fis is edechta sain, ar ni maith anfhis. (376/8 = 732/4)

Cid ara n-eabairt ‘guta .i. guth shet’ (= 359), ar ni set is i fen.

[380] Caide ruidhles 7 dileas 7 coitchind 7 indles in focail is guta? Ni ansa. Ruidhles di guth shet, uair etaidh guth a haenur. Diles di guth fuiit, uair nos-foidend fein. Coitchind di .i. guth fotha, uair is fotha hi isna foclaib. Indles di immorro guth fotha, uair ni fota hi inti [385] fein.

Cid ara n-ebairt ‘aibgitir epe ic tur’ (= 350), ar ni tindscain-tea na haibgitri amal asbert Fenius. Ba sai isna tri berlaibh cid siu tisad atuaid, 7 ni saithi cen aipgitri. //


I ndAchia immorro arrichta aibgitri in domu[i]n.

Cet-doichnedh 7 cet-dichnedh ind Auraicept[a] sund, .i. a cet-doichnedh for .i. ar in focul. A chet-dichneadh dno .i. epe augdair .i. tepe in focul fadesin.


(2,2) Attat dano di ernail forsin beithi-luis-nin ind oguim .i. feda 7 táebomnae.
(2,2) Dano .i. da n-ui in sein uea caingen .i. in caingean forsin beithi-luis-nin in ogaim .i. inn oguamma [395] no forsin bitheolus litterdha inn oghaim.

(2,2) Fedha, fidh immorro, dorimter da gne for suidiu .i. fidh saerdha 7 fidh aicenta.

Fid saerda .i. fid inn oghaim, 7 fid aicenta fid na caille. Fid saerda immorro feghthair da gne do bunad oca. Fidh didiu ondi as funo, fograigim, no ondi [400] is fundamentum .i. fotha,

7 is coitchend do fhid saerda 7 do fidh aicenta in bunad sin .i. fundamentum. Fid dono fo edh a inde eter saerda 7 aicenta. (= 2830/2831)

Fotha dno a airbert eter saerda 7 aicenta.

Ingnad cidh fodera na da bunadh icon fid saerda 7 aenbunadh icon fidh aicenta .i. funo 7 fundamentum? [405] Ni ansa.



Funo a dualus foghair 7 fundamentum a dualus fotha, 7 caitchend do fidh saerda 7 do fidh aicenta .i. fotha.

Fidh .i. fedh ae, uair itat coic ae and .i. ae ailes 7 ae chanas 7 ae aiges 7 ae mides 7 ae suides.

Ae ailes dno .i. i cein mbis for menmain, 7 ae chanas ica gabail, 7 aei aighes ic // [410] cuinchidh a lloige, 7 ae midheas ima meit no imma laighedh, 7 ae suidheas iar n-icc a loigi.

(2,2) Taebomnai .i. taebuaim n-ai,

no do thaebhaib na n-omnadh bit .i. do thaebhaib na fidh n-aireghdha biit,

no taebomnai .i. toba damna .i. iarsinni teipiter damna [415] na focul eistib.

Cid dia n-ebairt ‘taebuaim n-ui’ (= 412) .i. taebuaim n-airchedail, air ni fil int airchetul inna n-ecmais na taebomna.

Cid ara n-ebarthar ‘do thaebhaib na n-omnadh .i. na feadha’ (= 412/3), ar ni do thaebaib bit acht rempu no ‘na ndhiaidh isna foclaib bit na taebomna.

‘Toba ndamna’ immorro, is e [420] a ruidhles in focail sin.

Freagra du breithir tug isin aibgitir Latindai intan roraidh .i. (2,1) ‘Itat da ernail forsin aibgitir Latinda’.

Fregra du aicniud immorro tuc intan roraidh: (2,2) ‘Atait da ernail forsin beithi-luis in ogaim’.

Cuin is aenda in beithi? [425] Ni ansa. [A] huile.

Cuin as deda? .i. feda 7 taebomna.

Cuin as treda? .i. fedha 7 forfedha 7 taebomna.

Cuin as ceathair? .i. tri aiccmi na taebomna 7 na X feadha aireghda.
Cuin as choicdi? .i. fedha 7 forfedha 7 tri aicmi na taebomna.

Cuin a[s] sedha? .i. na tri foilcheasta inn ogaim .i. * * * [ng, sr, qu]. [430]

Cuin a[s] seachta? [.i.] teora fuilti ind Auraicepta .i. ‘huath 7 forsail 7 arnin’.

‘Huath’ cetumus: is ed fhuilleas ‘b’ co ngeib greim ‘p’, amal asbert in Laitneoir: ‘b’ cum aspiratione pro ‘p’ ponitur .i. samhaighthir ‘b’ cu tinfiudh ar ‘p’, conid fuilleas ‘h’, ar is ‘p’ // [435] tinfedh in Gaedhil.


‘Forsail’, [is e L] in fuilled eile. Dobeir cumang fedha forin son dia fot, amal ata ‘srón, slóg’ 7rl.

‘Arnin’, is e in tres fuilled. In baile a rreagar a leas da thaebomnageibidh greim indala n-ai arnin, ut est ‘ceand’ 7rl., ar ni bhi eamhnad in n-ogam.


Tri foilcheasta inn [440] oghaim, .i. ‘ceirt 7 gedal 7 straiph’. In baile i mbi ‘c’ ria n-’u’, is ‘queirt’ is scribhtha and, ut est ‘cuileand’ 7rl.

In baili i mbi ‘n’ ria ‘g’, is ‘gedul’ i[s] scribtha and, ut est ‘uingi’ 7 ‘cuing’ 7 ‘cingit’ 7rl.


In baile i mbia ‘s’ ria ‘d’, [is] ‘straiph’ as scribtha and amal ata ‘stan stial’, 7rl. [445]

(2,3) di ernail dano forsna consonaib lasin Laitneoir



.i. lethguttai 7 mútti.

(2,4) Inna lethguttai cétamus,


a tuistidi remib,

(2,5) in mútti immurgu,


a tuistidi ina ndegaid do suidib.

(2,3) da ernail dno .i. a firdedail didiu forsna consainib cumaidhi lasin Laitneoir

.i. lasin litertreoraidh no lasin legtreoraid no lasin leat[h]anthoirnidh.

(2,3) .i. lethguttai 7 muitti.

(2,3) lethgutai .i. lethgo­ta focertad dia fograigud; no luithguith; no leth­guthait no lethguthet no lethguth fotha.
7 ni hiarsani combad leath gotha co cert nobeith intibh acht nad roichet lanfo­ghur,

[unde Priscianus dixit: “Quicquid in duas partes dividuntur, altera pars dicitur semis” .i. secip ni fodhlaidir i ndibh randaib, raiter indara rand gu rub leath.]

ut Priscianus dixit: “Non qui demediam partem habent deorum vel vivorum sed qui pleni dii vel viri non sunt” .i. cia raidhiter iarum leth­­fir 7 leth­tii ni arsinni bhatis leithfir no batis lethfir dii acht nach at com­lana.

Is amlaid sin na leathghuta nida com­fhocail, ut Donatus dixit: “Semivocales sunt que per se quidem proferuntur et per se sillabam non faciunt” .i. atat na leath­ghutai nahi dourgabtar treothu fen.


“Quicquid [465] asperum dicitur auditus expellit” .i. innarbaid int eisteacht secib ni raiter co ha­­garb.

(2,3) Muiti .i. mifothai no maitha no maidthi .i. bec caithte a foghur, no mette no moite na gotha a mbeith maraen friu,

no onni as mutus .i. amlabar

7 ni iarsinni batis amlabar [470] di raith, air itat a fhoghuir intib cidh diat becca, ut Priscianus dixit: Informis mulier dicitur non quia caret forma, sed male formata est .i. atberar in bannscal dodheilb 7 ni iarsinni seachmallas o dheilbh acht midhealb fuirri nama. Is amlaidh sin iarum na muiti nidat nemfograigh acht is terc [475] fogur intibh tantum.



Vnde mute .i. mifhotha dicuntur ut Donatus dixit: Mute sunt que per se nec proferuntur et per se sillabam non faciunt .i. atat na muiti 7 it e na denat in sillaib treothu fen 7 noco turcbaiter treothu 7rl.

(2,4) Na leathgutai chetamus .i. in cetna ae for seis .i. iar fofis no in [480] cetna fis no in cetna amus forsin n-asneis.

(2,4) A tustidi remibh [.i. in lucht ota a tusmiud .i. na feada L.].

(2,5) Na muiti immorro a tustidi ina ndiaidh i suidhibh .i. isna feadhaibh dlightheachaib.

A tustighthidi .i. in lucht ota a teasargain no a tinnscital .i. a nguthaidhe.
Cid ara n-ebairt [485] (2,5) a tustidhe ‘na ndiaidh, maso thustidhi tinnscital, uair ni gnath in tindscedul fo dheoidh. Ni hedh eimh as ail dosom sund ar ma[d] tustidi in tinnscedul etir, acht mad ae roscichestar inna menmain .i. dliged gotha fil i tosuch na leathguta do airisim leis fo dheoidh 7 [490] in dliged consonata fil intib fo deoidh do chur uad prius. //

(2,6) Nirbu immaircide són lasin nGoídel (2,7) armbad aicned dóib díb línaib: a nguth remib 7 ina ndegaid, (2,8) air is ed robo immaircide la suide (2,9) combad a toísech doairesedar lais 7 a ndéidenach do chur úad, (2,10) conat mútti uili in beithe-luis-nin ind oguim acht feda nammá.

(2,6) .i. nir bo im(airgidi seon) .i. nir bu em ae aireic son, no nir bo eim aireachtain suad son,
no nir bo imuca urasa soon, no nir bo uca immorro soon

(2,6) lasin nGaedel, no nochor bo reim [500] im gothaidhi .i. lasin ngaeth dul .i. lasin fear iga raibi in dul gaeth.

(2,7) ar mad aicneadh no ar mad ae gnithi.

(2,7) doibh diblinaib .i. duna lethguthaibh 7 dona muitibh.

(2,7) a ngotha remibh 7 ina ndiaid .i. remib 7 ina ndhiaid .i. remib dona lethguthaib 7 ina ndiaidh dona muitib.

Acht ata acht leam [505] and cheana 7 is ed robo em airechtain suad la sen co mbad ind ae rosechastar ina menmain .i. in guth fil isin leathguthaibh no-airised lais fo dheoidh, 7 a ndeidenach fuach do chor ae int shuadh .i. in taebomnai do chor ar tus conod miait labartha in bitheolais litterda in ogaim.

(2,10) acht feadha [510] nama per inistrofen a ainm sin .i. traide den impsoud .i. amal ata ‘l’ co mbadh ‘le’ nobeith and, 7 ‘n’ co mbad ‘ne’ nobeth and.

Cid ar mad fearr leis-sium a mbith comtis muiti huili quam (.i. inas) a mbeith leathguta 7 muiti, amal robatar icon Laitneoir? Ni ansa.

Ar [515] sechem Grec, ar ni filet lethgutai la suidibh, 7 roba do Grecaib do Feinius; no dno is ar uaisli uird na nGrec ut dicitur: Omne uile prius ponitur, omne bonum postponitur // .i. samaigthir gach ndereoil ar tus 7 gach sainemail co forbu.

(3,1) Insce trá: cis lir insci dochuisin la Feni (.i. ifin che) ? (3,2) Ni ansae: a tri .i. ferinsce 7 baninsce 7 deminsce lasin nGoídel .i. mascul 7 femen 7 neutur lasin Laitneoir. (3,3) Cest: catte dechor eterru? (3,4) Ni ansae: nosdechrigetar a tri airlainn insce .i. hic hec hoc .i. is é is sí is ed .i. is é in fer is sí in ben is ed a nem.



(526/570 after 620, = after 603)


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