Incipit Auraicept na nEges i. eraicept



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Insce, .i. co feasar in se fo in si inn aisti.
Etargaire, .i. co feser cia gne in aircetail do gne do thomus fri sechta. Et intan ba roscadh na tomaiste and, cindas nothomhsidhe? Ar ni bidh lancubaidh no taebchubhaid and. [930] Ni ansa. Do focul forba anaile no taispenta don choiceadh focul, uair is coic focai1 romesadh i n anail in filed.

Cate sechta in ochta ind Auraicepta? Ni ansa. Intan is ocht ndialta i mbricht, is and is secht n alta. Cate in focul oenchongbhalach dechongbalach treconngbalach? [935] Ai[n]mnigther o trian; 7 ni ruidhilsi do in trian o n ainmnigther nadat na da trian o n ainmnighther iarcomarc.

Caitiat na da taebomna gabhait greim guthaige? .i. ‘c’ 7 ‘r’ ar essi ‘a’, ut est: Coluim Cille cecinit:

Im ba sessach im ba seng, [940]

Im ba tresach, tuirme glonn,
A Christ, in congebha lind

O thi co teacht ar lind long?


(6,1) Catte tomus fri fid?

(6,2) Ni ansae: cofeisser a llín 7 a n-úati, a mét 7 a lagat, a cumang 7 a n-éccumang, a nert 7 a n-aimnert. (6,3) Is ed a llín: cóic aicmi oguim .i. cóicer cacha aicme

7 ó óen co a cóic cach aí condadeligitar a n-airde. (6,4) It hé a n-airde: desdruim, túathdruim, lesdruim, tredruim, imdruim. (6,5) Is amlaid imdrengar ogum amal imdrengar crann .i. saltrad fora frém in chroinn ar tús 7 do lám dess remut 7 do lám clé fo deoid. (6,6) Is íar-sin is leis 7 is fris 7 is trít 7 is immi. (6,7) It é a ndeligthe feda 7 forfheda, ut est: * * * * * * * * * * [a o u e i ea oi ui io ae]. (6,8) Cest, cid aran-epertar feda fri suidiu? (6,9) Ni ansae: fo bíth domiditer na táebomnae friu 7 conúaigiter conaib, ut dicitur: luis ailme, beithe ailme. (6,10) Cindas domitter frisna táebomnae amal fidu? (6,11) Ni ansae: cach dá táebomnae ar fhid hi cubaid, cach da comfhid i cubaid: (6,12) is ed is cubaid íarum corop ed a fid cétna bes isna foclaib ind imfhreccrai7 corop innun a llín do tháebomnaib. (6,13) ut est: bas 7 las, bras 7 gras, cenn 7 lenn, donn 7 conn.

Caite tomus fri fid? .i. co fesser a lin 7 a n uaiti .i. a lin a coic aicmib 7 a n uaiti i n aenaicmi.

a met 7 a llaiget .i. a met hi coic flescaib 7 a llaiget i [965] n aenflescaib.

Caite deochair eter a cumang 7 a neart? A cumang cetamus: intan gabaid guth a n aenur .i. ‘a’ no ‘o’ no ‘u’.

[A L] nert immorro: intan dosbere primshuidhiugud i sillaib, amal ata ‘bais’ 7 ‘lais’.

Caite deochair eter a n egumang 7 a n aimnert? Ni ansa. [970] Ecumang: intan bithi fo nihilus ina guthaige, amal rogab ‘find’.


Fir em, air ni thuicter na feda dedhencha filet isna deghfoghraibh sin triana cantain fochetoir.

Aimnert // immorro: intan bit i comsuidigthib cutrumaib na defogair 7 isna forfedaib, amal ata ‘fer’ 7 ‘ben’. [975]

(6,3) Coic feadha cach aicmi: 7 is oen co a coic cach ae .i. aenfleisc co coic flescaib, ut est ‘beithi’ a aenur, ‘nin’ a coicur.


No dno gne ele? Ni ansa. Ecumang cetamus: intan bite fo nialus, ut ‘quoniam quidem’ lasin Laitneoir, no intan bite tri guthaige a n aenshillaib lasin nGaedhel, ut ‘Briain, [980] gliaidh, feoil, beoir’ lasin nGaedel.

Aimnert immorro: intan bite fo consonacht, ut ‘seruus, uulgus’ lasin Laitneoir, ut iarum ‘cian 7 ceir 7 uull 7 aball’ lasin nGaedhel, 7rl.

Lanchumang dano intib etir fedha 7 taebhomna co nd­urba ‘uath’.


(6,3) Condadelighetar tria n airde, .i. tria [985] ­n-ecosc, .i. is caindeifriges a n aradu.
(6,4) It e a n airde: deasdruim .i. ‘bethi’ do deas in droma, is ed aicmi ‘beithi’;
Tuaithdruim .i. don leith atuaidh din druim, bis aicme ‘uatha’;

Lesdruim .i. leas uait [7 fris] cucut, no leatarsna darin druim, bis aicmi ‘muine’;

Tredruim is ed aicmi ‘ailmi’; [990]

Imdruim .i. andiu 7 anall aicmi na forfidh.

(6,5) Is amlaid imdrengar .i. is amhlaidh eimh ceimnighthir isinn ogam amal cemnigther isin crand



.i. do lamh dess reut .i. aicmi ‘beithi’ 7 do lamh chle foi diudh .i. aicmi ‘h’.

(6,6) 7 iarsin is leis 7 is fris aicmi ‘m’ .i. les uait 7 fris cucut,



trit immorro [995] aicmi ‘a’, tairis immorro 7 immi aicmi na forfidh.

(cf. 6,7) Is amhlaid sin imdheilighter na fedha 7 na forfeda 7 na taebomna.

(6,8) Cid ara n eparar fedha fri saidhiu?
(6,9) Ni ansa: fobith domiter na taebomna friu

7 cainuaighter na focail // dibh, ut est ‘luis ailme, beithe ailme’ .i.’ la, ba’. Is e sin in [1000] sealbhadh saerdha cen reim acht reim remraite.


Ni ansa. Amal iaraither fidh aire[gh]dha nama ica breith fri sechtu, sic iaraither in taebhomna bhis and, cach da taebomna ar fidh, ut dicitur:


Marcach atchonnac anne, [1005]

Etach uaime co ndath cro,

A dath is gilithear geis,

Uan tuinni dath a da o


Dede airegar and: aentugud co ndeliugud, amal ata ‘bas 7 las’, 7 is iar comardadh n airchetail [ata L], [1010] air is inand fidh aireghdha fil intib, 7 is inand taebomna degheanach. Sain immorro in taebomna taeseach .i. ‘el’.

(6,10) Cindas toimsiter na taebomna imna fedaibh? (6,11) Ni ansa. Cach da taebomna dib imon fidh. Is e in comfhot coir (.i. lancubaid insin), ut est ‘bas 7 las’. Is e sin int aentughud [1015] co n inannus 7 int aentugud cen inannus. 7 is iar comhardugud n airchetail ata, uair is inund fidh aireghdha fil intibh, 7 is comlin do thaebomnaib; 7 is ed a choir n­airchetail.

Conagar dno isin aip[g]itir bunad o aen, 7 airic o deda, [1020] 7 a cor a tredhe, 7 a comhuaim fri ceathardu, 7 a comdhluthadh fri cuict[h]i, a moradh a seda, a fogail a sechta, a riagail fri ochta, a incosc a naede, a asdadh a ndeichthe.

Is e int aen thuas .i. Fenius Farrsaidh; in dedha .i. mac Etheoir fris; in tres mac Aingen; in ceathramadh Cae; in coiced [1025] Amairgen mac Naende mic Nenuail; in sesedh Ferchertne; // in sechtmad a dalta; int ochtmad Ceandfaelad; in nomad a dhalta; in dechmad a asdadh i n aen .i. in trefocal.

Is e seo a thosach in Uraiceapta [i]ar nAmairgein nGlungeal; locc don libur sa Tochur Inbhir Moir i [1030] crich hUa nEnechglais Cualand; et aimser do aimsear mac Miled; perso do Amairgein Glungeal mac Miled; tucaid a denma mic Miled dia tothlugud fair amal ata ‘nar ndiaidh.

(1,2) Cía arránic a mbérla-sa 7 cía hairm an-arn-ícht 7 cissi aimser arícht? (1,3) Ní ansae: ar-aránic Fénius Farrsaid ocin tur Nemruaid cinn deich mblíadnae íar scaíliud ón tur for cach leath (1,4) 7 is cach combérlaid dochuaid a suidiu dochum a chríche 7 ni cach comcheniúil, (1,5) amal rogab Cai Caínbrethach, dalta Féniusa Farrsaid, in dara descipul sechtmogat na scole: (1,6) ba do Ebraib a bunadus 7 ba co Éigipt rofoíded (1,7) 7 is and roan Fénius feissin ocin tur 7 is and adrothreb (1,8) conid and-sin conatgetar cuici in scol bérla do thepiu dóib asna ilbérlaib tucsat leo di muich conna beith oc nach [a]iliu a mberla sain


(1,9) acht combad leo a n-óenur nobeth no la nech foglennad leo dorisi. (1,10) Is and-sin doreped a mbélra asna ilbérlaib 7 doaiselbad do óen díb, conid a ainm-side fortá a mbélra-sa.
(1,11) Ba he in fer hisin .i. Goedel mac Angein, conid Goídelc de-shin ó Goídiul mac Angin mic Glúnfhind mic Láimfhind mic Agnumain do Grécaib.
(1,12) Inunn trá Goídel mac Aingin 7 Goídel mac Etheoir .i. da ainm bátar fora athair .i. Aingin 7 Etheoir. (1,13) Is and íarum roríaglad a mbérla sa: a mba ferr íarum do cach bérlu 7 a mba leithiu 7 a mba caímiu, is ed doreped isin [1055] nGoídilc; (1,14) 7 cach son donaairnecht cárechtair isna aipgitrib ailib olchena, aríchta cárechtairi leo-som doip isin bethe luis nin ind oguim, ut est: * * * * * [aea oi ui iiii aaee].

(1,15) Rolátha íarum a fheda for leth 7 a tháebomnae dano for leth, cofil cach áe díb fo leith ó’lailiu. (1,16) Nifail [1060] lethguttai and amal nafail la Grécu acht múti nammá. (1,17) Cach dúil donaraba ainmniugud isna bérlaib ailib aríchta ainmnigthi dóib isin Góidilc, ut est grus 7 cloch 7 linn.

Atconnac in lis [1065]

Seach a teged glas,

Inarb imda a grus

Gen gurb imda as.

(1,13) A nba ferr 7 a nba leithiu 7 a nba caimiu cach berla, is ed dora[ta]d aco isinn Gaedelg, .i. i nba socair caimiu fri radh [1070] .i. socarcaine leosum gutta 7 muiti oca and inat leathgutta 7 muiti 7 guttai, amal atat icon Laitneoir.

(1,13) Ferr i ceill leosum .i. a v fri fat 7 a v fri gair, 7 a v fri buga 7 a v fri cruas, 7 a v fri lanfogur 7 a v fri deghfogur, anda a haen choic fothibh uili, amal ata icon Laitneoir, 7 is ed asbeir [1075] in Laitneoir: Gabaidh a chuic guthaige sium an greim sin uili, ut est: latine he omnes uocales produci 7 corripi pos[s]unt .i. itat na huili guthaige Laitinda .i. co caemnachtar co regdar 7 co timairceter.

(1,13) Leithiu i llitrib, .i. ar ni fil a fhregra sin // lasin Laitneoir.

Leithiu a ciallaibh 7 foclaib 7 litrib.

.i. lethe [1080] a litribh * * * * [ng ui iiii aaee]: ni fil a frecra lasin Laitneoir:



Leithi i foclaib, .i. ‘grus 7 cloch 7 lind’: ni fil a fregra sin lasin Laitneoir: ‘grus’, .i. tanach, ‘galmula’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘gruth’ lasin nGoedel dia frecra, ‘galmarium’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘faiscre’ lasin nGaedel, ‘galmalam’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘gruthrach’ lasin [1085] nGaedel, ‘grus’ lasin nGaedel, ni fil a fregarthach side lasin Laitneoir.

lapis’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘cloch’ lasin nGaedel, ‘petra’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘ail’ lasin nGaedel, ‘sropula’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘carrach’ lasin nGaedel. ‘Cloch’ no ‘ael’ 7 ‘onn’ 7 ‘ailcne’ immorro, is iat sin cenela cloch do na fuilet [1090] freacarthaich icon Laitneoir.

aqua’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘usce’ lasin nGaedel, ‘amnis’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘aband’ lasin nGaedel, ‘piscina’ lasin Laitneoir, ‘iachlinn’ lasin nGaedel; ‘linn’ immorro lasin nGaedel, ni fhil a frecra lasin Laitneoir.

Leithiu didiu in Gaedel i foclaibh 7 i llitribh desin anda [1095] in Laitneoir.

Is ed asbeir in Laitneoir, cid leithiu i foclaib 7 i llitrib in Gaedelc, ni leithe i ciallaibh; ar cia bet ilanmann icon Gaedel ic sluinn na raet, tic in chiall relait asin uathadh focul fil icon Laitneoir. Ni fir on, amal asbert in Laitneoir fein: nisi sciris nomen, cognitio [1100] rerum periit .i. atbail int aichnius inna raet meni aichnigther int ainm.

Is e seo a thossach in libhair sea iar Fenius 7 iar nIair mac Nema 7 iar nGaedel mac Ethiuir. Is iat sin a persainn. 7 is i a aimser, .i. aimser tancatar mic [1105] Israel uili a hEigipht. I nDacia arricht, ci asberatar alii co mbad i mmaigh Sennair.


Tucait a scribind .i. a // thotlugud do scoil mhoir co Fenius 7 co Iar 7 go Goedel mac nEitheoir a thepe doibh inna nUraicept iarna idnacul do Maissi 7 iar foglaim do Chae Cainbreathach [1110] occa;
conad iarsin arriachta n[a] aip[g]itri a n aentabaill, amal asbeir: (7,1) Cat iat aib[g]itri 7rl.

‘Aur’ cach toisseach, ‘aicceacht’ dano icht aicce (.i. gnim), air iss i n aicci bis in descipul icon aid; no ‘aiccept’ .i. acceptus .i. airiten .i. chucut neach nach fil agut. ‘na nd egeas’ .i. na ndaei cen cheass .i. na fileadh. [1115]

Se primthaisigh lasi ndernad in tor, .i. Eper mac Saile 7 Gregus mac Gomer, otait Greic, 7 Laitin mac Puin, otait Laitinda, Riabad Scot mac Gomer 7 Nemruadh mac Cuis 7 Fenius Farrsaidh. Da bliadain coecat o scailed [1120] in tuir co flaithius Nin mic Bel, a do coecat [a] righi. Ceithir bliadhna deac ar tri fichtib ar secht cetaib o fhlaithius Nin mic Bel co deredh flaithiusa Tutaines righ in domain. Is re linn rotoghladh in Trae fo dheoidh. Secht mbliadna ingen Laitin mic Puin, conad tri bliadna [1125] cethorchat ar noi cetaibh o scaileadh in tuir co tuc Aeneas Lauina 7 Laitin fen doroine a caingen fris. Is follus as sin co nach certtiaghait lucht in Uraicepta sa co mbad e Laidin in sechtmadh primthuiseach in tuir.

(7,1) Cest, cateat aibgitri na tri prímbérla eter [1130] ainmniugud 7 chárechtair? (7,2) Ni ansae, ém: aibgitir Ebraide cétamus.



(pp. 86/87 ed. Calder skipped)

Is e in fer cetna tra Fenius Farsaidh arainig inni ceithri aipgitri sea .i. aipgitir Ebraidi 7 Grecda 7 Laitinda 7 in beithi luis nin in ogaim, 7 is airi is certiu in dedenach, .i. [1135] in beithe, air is fo deoidh arricht.

Bai coiciur ar fichit isin scoil ba huaisliu dib, 7 it e a n anmand forta in beithi luis nin eter fedha 7 taebomna:

[b l f s n h d t c q m g ng z r a o u e i ea oi ui ae].


7 bai morshesser ba huaisliu do suidhibh o [1140] ran­ainmnighthea na seacht fedha aireghdha inn ogaim, conadh oiri rolaithi for leith:

[a o u e i eeaa [ea] oo [oi].

Asberat araili it deich feda airegda filet ann, 7 it e indso a n anmand:

[a o u e i eeaa [ea] oo [oi] uu [ui] ii [io] aaee [ae]].

7 it e a tri doformagat sen frisna secht thuas:

[uu [ui] ii [io] aaee [ae]],

[1145] conid aire sin rolatha a fedha 7 a taebomna for leith, 7 it e a n anmand soin fordotait iarumh.

Asberat immorro araile co nach o dhainibh itir ainmnighter fedha inn n ogaim isin Gaedhelg, acht o chrandaibh gen gu haichinter anniu araile crand dibh. [1150] Air atat ceithri hernaile for crandaib, .i. airigh fedha 7 athaig fedha 7 lossa fedha 7 fodhla fedha; 7 is uaithibh sin a ceathrur ainmnighter fedha in oghaim.

Airigh fedha quidem, .i. dur, coll, cuileand, abhull, uindsiu, ibur, gius.

Athaig fedha, .i. fern, sail, bethi, lemh, sce, crithach, [1155] caerthand.

Fodla fedha andso, .i. draighen, trom, feorus, // crand fir, fedlend, fidhat, finncholl.

Lossa fedha, .i. aitean, fraech, gilcach, raid, lecla (.i. luachair) 7rl.



Beithe dno on beithe rohainmnigheadh ar cosmaillius fri cois in bheithe, ut dicitur: [1160]

Feocos foltchain in beithi,

7 is airi sin is i mbeithi roscribadh in cetainm ogaim tucadh a nErind .i. secht mbeithi tugad do Lugh mac Ethlenn, .i. ‘berthair do bean uait nisi eam custodi[e]ris’(.i. mine derna tu a coimét om. L). Is aire sin beos scribthar [1165] beithi a tosach aipgitre in ogaim.

Luis dno, is o chrand rohainmniged, .i. o cairtheand, .i. uair ‘luis’ ainm caerthaind isint shenGaedelg, ut dicitur: ‘Li sula luis’ .i. caertheand, ar ailleacht a caer.

Fernd dono, o chrand rohainmniged, ut dicitur: ‘Airenach Fiann’ .i. fernd, air is di na sgeith. [1170]

Sail dano, is o chrand rohainmniged, ut dicitur: ‘Li ambi’ .i. nemli lais, .i. ar cosmaillius a datha fri marb.

Nin dno, is o chrand rohainmniged, .i. o uindsind, ut dicitur: cosdad sida nin’, .i. uinnius, ar is di doniter craind gae triasa coscairther in sidh; no ‘cosdudh sidha uindis’. Nin .i. [1175] ginol garmna dognither do uindsind .i. isin aimsir sidha togaibter garmna.

Huath dono, is o chrand rohainmniged, .i. sce, [ut dicitur: ‘comdal cuan huath’, .i. sce om. L]; no ar is uathmar hi ara deilghibh.
Duir dono, is o chrand rohainmniged, ut dicitur: ‘airde doss­aib [1180] duir’.
Tinne dono, is o chrand rohainmniged, .i. ‘cuileann [trian roith tindi L]’, .i. ar is cuileand in tres // fidh roith in carbait.
Coll dono, is o chrand rohainmnig­ed, ut dicitur: ‘cainfidh’, .i. coll, .i. cach ac ithi a chno.
Queirt dano, is o chrand rohainmnighead, .i. abhull, ut [1185] dicitur: ‘clithar boaiscille’ .i. elit geit quert .i. aball.

Muin dono, .i. finemhain, ut dicitur: ‘airdi masi muin’, .i. iarsinni fhasas a n airde .i. finemhain.

Gort dono, .i. edeand:

Glaisiu geltaibh gort [1190]

.i. edind.

Ngetal dono, .i. gilcach no raith, ut dicitur: ‘luth lega getal’, .i. cilcach no raith.


Straiph dono, .i. draighen, ut dicitur: ‘aire srabha sraibh’, .i. draighin.
Ruis dono, .i. trom, ut dicitur: ‘ruamna ruice ruis’, .i. trom.
Ailm dono, .i. crand giuis .i. ochtach.

Onn .i. alten.
Ur [1195] .i. fraech.
Edhadh .i. ed uath .i. crand fir no crithach.
Idho .i. ibhar.

Ebhadh .i. crithach.

Oir .i. feorus no edind.

Uilleand .i. edleand.
Iphin .i. spinan no ispin 7rl.

Anmand fidh tra sin uile amal fogabar isna Duilibh Fedha inn ogaim 7 ni ho dainib, ut alii dicunt. [1200]


Cest, (8,1) Cis lir a cumang? Ni ansae. lánchumang intib uilib eter feda 7 táebomna co n aurbu úath.

.i. conas­firbade ‘uath’ .i. amal bes a n aicned cidh mor gidh beg e. ls amhlaidh innister isin Cin Ollaman .i. cethirs[h]licht [1205] fegh­thair for fedhaibh, .i. cumang 7 egumang, lanchumang 7 lenchumang. Lanchumang i fedaib, cumang a forfed­aibh, egumang a mutibh, lethchumang a leathgutaibh.

Atberat araile is treshlicht as choir and .i. lanchumang a fedaibh, 7 cumang a forfedaibh, 7 ecumang a muitibh; ar ni // [1210] fil leathguta la Gaedel.

Cest, cate fot i fedhaibh 7 i forfedhaibh 7 gair hi taebomnaib .i. gair suidigud, air is leath­aimser for taebomnaib do gres a corus forfed.

Cest, cis lir dech docussin? Ni ansa. A ocht: dialt 7 recomrac 7 iarcomrac, felis 7 cloenre 7 luibenchosach 7 [1215] claideamnas 7 bricht. Oenfidh airegda i ndialt, a da i recomrac, a tri i n iarcomrac, a ceithri i filis, a coic hi claenre, a se i luibenchosach, a secht i claidemnas, a ocht i mbricht, cenmota taebomna.

Cest, cia roig dialt i mmeit 7 i llaiget .i. dialt co ceill coic litri and a [1220] n as mode, rosaigh i llaiget co oenlitir, 7 is focal son, ut est ‘a, o, i’, amal ata ‘á’, .i. ard, slebhi, amal ita ‘Ard (Á) Cuis’ 7 ‘Ard (Á) Cartaind’, a Slebh Luachra, .i. anmand slebhe saindriudh, ut dixit Mac Da Cerd[a]:

Damh conngair eter da a, [1225]

Fon gluaisi gaeth gulbanda,

Is uallach int arganda

Re trichait sed lurganda

7 ‘o’ (.i. cluas) for cind 7 ‘[i], inis Coluim Cille.

Rosaigh didiu i mmeit co a coic littri, ut est ‘bracht tract [1230] druct scalp’.

Scriuthair 7 ni hairimther ‘uath’ isna foclaib dedenachaib arna litrib, acht nod tinfid. Cach ndialt iarum na tormaig fri araili comcumung cach ae focail. Deich co a ocht a mbricht, 7 is e met 7 laigett cacha Gaeidelgi o dealt // co bric[h]t cona n athgabail diblinaib .i. co cumangar [1235] du gach dialt iarna tinol deach. Is bricht a mbith ocht sillaba. Is ed bunad cacha Gaedelge dialt acht mod 7 toth 7 traeth. Domiditer alta uad fri alta duine, amal domiditer fri cach n indsci.

Cest, cindus domiditer fri cach n indsci? Ni ansa. Corop cach dialt friscara di araili, ut est ‘tis tuas [1240] tair tiar tes tuaid’: gu rub recomarc friscara di araili, ar is cubaid a comfid 7 a comdeich.

Coig airmi cintecha in tuir .i. da tuaith sechtmogat 7 da comairlig sechtmogat acco 7 da berla sechtmogat for fodailt doib 7 da deiscipul sechtmogat tancadar la Feinius [1245] do foglaim na mberla sin 7 da ceimend sechtmogat in airdi in tuir.

Cest, caidi deifir eter indeall 7 tindell? Ni ansa. Innell int imcomurc 7 tinnell int eirniud.

Seacht primtoisigh lasi ndernad in tor .i. Eber mac [1250] Saili, Grecus mac Gomer a quo Greci, Laitin mac Puin a quo Laitini, Riabath Scot a quo Scoiti, Nemruadh mac Cuis mic Caim mic Noi 7 Faillech mac Ragau mic Arafaxat mic Seim.

Cest, cate deochraigter eter cinniud 7 cintech[u] 7 [1255] cinntichu son7 Ni ansa. Cinniud in aipgitir Grecda, ar is ceirtiu quam ind aipgitir Aspin Ebraide. Cinntichu immorro in aipgitir Laitianda na in aipgitir Grecda. Cinntichu son .i. beithi luis nin in ogaim na in aipgitir Laitianta, uair is fo deoidh arricht. [1260]

Cia haenfocul gebes forna ceit[h]ri ernaili ind Auraicepta cen deifir tomuis no tarmfortcind no feda no focail // na forgnuisi? Ni ansa. In focul is aipgitir, ar gebid ar aipgitir Ebraide 7 Grecda 7 Laitianda.

Treidi doghni ‘uath’, .i. bogad 7 semigudh 7 airdibdad. [1265]

Bocad cetumus: for taebomnaib 7 is ‘na ndiaidh doeagmaing doib, .i. do ‘p’ 7 do ‘c’ [7] do ‘t’, ut ‘cloch, both’. Iarsin Laitneoir bidh tinfid iar cach taebomna isin Gaedilc.

Semi­gudh immorro forna taebomnaib chena, 7 is rempo doec­maing doib, .i. for coic taebomnaib, .i. for ‘b, c, d, t, g’.

Bogad [1270] ‘beithi’ cetamus, .i. ‘sop 7 lop’, .i. amal ata ‘B[h]atraig’. ‘Uath’ bogas in ‘beithi’ fil and, ar ni bi ‘p’ isin Gaedilc.

Semigud, amal ata ‘a Batraig’, ‘uath’ and i[s] semiu ‘nas i n aill.

Bocad ‘cuill’, .i. ‘clach 7 ach’. Bocad ‘d’, .i. ‘sodh 7 odh’. Bocad for ‘tinni’, .i. ‘tath 7 ath’. Bocad for ‘gort’, .i. ‘magh 7 agh’. [1275]

Seimigud ‘b’ immorro, .i. ‘a bhen, a bhan, a bhe binn’.

Seimiugud ‘c’ dono, .i. ‘o chiun, do chein, o chianaibh, o chetoir’.

Semigud ‘d’, .i. ‘d[h]amsa, d[h]uitsiu.’

Semigud ‘t’, .i. ‘a thir, a thuaigh’. Semiugud ‘g’, .i. ‘a ghradh 7 a ogha’. [1280]

Airdibdad immorro forte [dá] taebomna, .i. for ‘sailig’ 7 for ‘ferna’ (.i. taebomna amal fedaib) .i. orro dibdudh .i. a mbricht ass di raith, amal ata ardibdad ‘sailech’, .i. ‘a s[h]al, a s[h]uil’;

airdibdad ‘ferna’, .i. ‘a fhind, a f[h]ir, ind f[h]eda’. [1285]

Is sain so frisna cubaid * 7 * [ea 7 e], .i. euad 7 edadh in dorusa uerbi (.i. tabair esemplair),

gur ‘uinge 7 cingit 7 cuing’, is ecen di littir Latianda ica scribind na consani, .i. ‘n 7 g’. Ni hecen acht * [ng] a oenur ar son // in da littre sin isin Gaedilc, ut est * * *, .i. [1290] ‘uinge’, * * *, .i. ‘cuing’, * * * * *, ‘cingit’.

Nidat inunna dno suin fris nad cubaid cach ae dib seo * 7 * [ea 7 e],


ut est: ‘seeit in teinid’, tria * [e] a scribind, ‘seit’ (.i.) conar tria * a scribind.

‘Neim’, nathrach, .i. * a scribind.


‘Min’ (.i. beic). ‘iphi’ and; ‘min’, arba, .i. [1295] * [i] and.


‘Nemh’ im talmain, ‘neamh’ im usce, * [ea] andsen.

Air i[t] trega ara tugad forfeda eter isin aib[g]itir in ogaim, .i. do fregra do defoghur, amal adberar isna Breathaibh Nemedh: .i. “genmota forfeda a fail defoghur na nguta” 7 dono do sainigedh foghur forsna fedhaibh, air [1300] is buga fogair bis isna forfedhaibh,


ut est ‘neamh’,* [ea] and, ‘naemh’, * [ae] and, ‘nem’, * [e] and.
(1302-1338 temporarily after 1514)
Cest, caide fot 7 gair intib 7rl.? Ni ansa. Amal ata [1340] ‘neam’, forfid fil and, ‘nem’ immorro, in fid aire[gh]da fil and 7 is cruaidiu in fid airegh[d]a fil and 7 is buigi in forfhid .i. ‘neam’; no didiu is gair n aicnid 7 fot suidigthi a fedaib 7 gair suidig[th]i i forfedaib 7 fot n aicnid; no dono na feda fileat sund it inunda 7 na guthaigi.

Na for­feda [1345] immorro it inunda 7 na deofhoghair. In defhoghur fil intib iarum, amal ata ‘bean’, ‘bein’ dogenta de meni beith deofhoghur. Is amlaid na forfeda.

Cindus on 7 ‘ebad’ a forfidh ind anma intan asberar ‘fer’? Ni codarsna anni sin arin defoghur. Is cumair sin 7 ni bi fair acht aimsear [1350] co leith tantum (.i. nama) an as modhe. Da aimsir immorro forsin nguthaige fota. Cia bad gairit iarum in defoghur remunn inrathaigte.

Ceinmota didiu in fid conicc comardugud fuit 7 gair indib, amal asbert in Lait­neoir: [circumplex] forsna sillabaib fotta, amal ata da, si, 7, [1355] amal adberat, acuit forsna sillabaib cuimri, ut est pax .i. bacc. Is fon indus [s]in dobeir in Gaedel ‘forshail’ for fot, amal rogab ‘sron 7 slog’ 7rl., et ‘ernin’ arding dead, amal rogab ‘leacc 7 ceand’ 7rl. Cid timarta iarum ‘ebad’ isinni is ‘fer’, ni la Greco as defoghur in sain.

Cid fotera in [1360] codarsna sin 7 na coic fedha 7 n(a secht) fedha 7 na deich fedha iar fuilliuc[h]t aili? Ni ansa. Na coic fedha cetamus: ic frecra duna coic guthaigib tug na secht fedha // immorro. Na deich fedha immorro .i. ‘iphin’ ar defoghur ata, ‘emoncoll’ ara n emnaidi ata intan sin condat a deich [1365] samlaid. ‘Pin’ immorro ar ‘p’ ata 7 ‘amancoll’ ar ‘x’ ata conid a seacht samlaid. Iar nAuraiccept Muman in so.
Gne aili asberait araili: ‘ebad’ 7 ‘oir’, is ar fedaib [fod]a itat.

‘Uilleann’ immorro is ar ‘y’ ata, 7 is ar ‘u’ intan bis fo medontaig.


‘Iphin’ is ar h ‘i’ fo meodontacht, no is ‘iphin’ is [1370] coir and ar ‘p’. ‘Emuncoll’ didiu is ar ‘x’ ata, .i. for foimdin na focul nGrecda no Laitinda do thabairt isinn Gaidelg, 7 is aire raiter ‘eamancoll’ ris, ar is ‘coll’ indarna taebomna fil ind ‘x’, 7 is airi is ‘coll’ adberar d’emnad and, 7 ni ‘sail’; ar is taisechu ‘coll’ i-n‘x’ ina ‘sail’. [1375]

Conadar didiu is[in] bethi-luis nin: Caidi [in fid gabus] greim taebomna 7 in fid gabus greim da taebomna 7 in fid gabus greim focail 7 in fid na geibh greim taebomna na feda na focail?


Is e in fidh gabus greim taeb­omna quidem, .i. fid a ndiaid araile 7 fidh bis for primfhid [1380] a focail no araen re defhoghur a n-aensillaib, ut est ‘beoir feoil Briain’ 7rl., no fidh teit a consanacht .i. ‘u’.
Fid gabus greim dá taebomna .i. aenfidh fregras in tomus do dhib taebomnaibh, ut dicitur cach da taebomna ar fidh.

Fid gabus greim focail .i. fidh labhras a aenur.


Fidh na [1385] ghabhand greim taebomna na fedha na focail .i. ‘u’ nihelsa, ut dicitur: nec uocales nec consonantes habentur, .i. nach gutai 7 nach consoini iat, no fidh bhis a ndiaid araile, ut diximus (mar adubramar).

Conadar dono isin beithi luis nin taebomna gabus // [1390] greim fedha, 7 taebomna gabus greim taebomna 7 feda. Et taebomna gabus greim da fid no da taebomna. Et da taebomna gabus greim fedha. Et taebhomna gabus greim coic fidh 7 se taebomna. Et taebomna gabus greim tri fidh 7 ceithri taebomna. Et taebomna [1395] gabus greim focail. Et taebomna na gebhend greim taebomna no feda no focail.

In taebomna ghabhus greim da fid no da taebomna ‘ng’.

Is i in taebomna gabhus greim feda, .i. ‘queirt’.

Is i gabhus greim taebomna 7 feda .i. ‘c 7 u’ nihelsa. Et taebomna gabus greim [1400] fedha .i. gach da taebomna ar fid i tomus.

Taebomna gabus greim coic fed 7 se taebomna .i. ‘duir’ i n inad ‘dine disoil’. Ni machtad intan ghabhus greim na coic fidh 7 na se taebomna ge gabhaidh greim da fidh 7 da taebomna.

Taebomna gabus greim tri fidh 7 ceithri [1405] taebomna, .i. ‘sail’ a n inad ‘forsail’.

Taebomna gabus greim focail, .i. taebomna congeb greim forbaidhe. Taebomna na geb greim taebomna na feda na focail, .i. taebomna dia togaib ‘uath’ ceand doraith.


Cest, cislir deich dochuisin? Ni ansa.

In traigh lasin [1410] Laitneoir, in dech lasin filid, ut Donatus dixit: pes est sillabarum et temporum certa dinumeratio .i. ata in traigh conid armidetu demin inna sillab 7 inna n aimser. Ata dono airmidetu derb sillab 7 traighed 7 aimser ocon Gaidhiul o dhialt co bricht: sillab foirbthe cach deach [1415] dibh di arailiu isin Gaedilc conid a hocht samlaidh // i mbricht conid airmidetu dearb sain o oensillaib co a ocht.

Dialt .i. di fo dhiultadh co nach fil alt and. Recomhrac .i. re i comhraiget na di shillaib immon alt.
Iarcomrac .i. iarum comraigit .i. iar cach [1420] ndedenach .i. comrac na tri sillab forsna da sillabaib tuiseacha.
Feleas .i. fi les na lama no fo lais cibeadh dib beras .i. lesin filid, uair is cudruma.

Claenre, uair ara re (.i. claen a rind) is a dho ar indara leith 7 a tri forin leth n aili. Luibenchossach .i. in choss cona luibnibh .i. na [1425] coic meoir 7 in traigh in sessed.

Claidemnas .i. claidebh manus .i. manus lamh 7 claidebh na laimi in slindean. 7 is e in sechtmad dialt.

Bricht .i. bri ocht .i. ocht mbriathra and, no bricht iarsinni brigtair ocht sillaba and.


Cest, cate deochair eter dialt 7 a dheach? Ni ansa. In trath is [1430] forfhidh in dialt, alt eter defhogur and. Intan immorro is taebomna 7 primfidh, alt eter in taebomna 7 in fid and. In­tan immorro is aenguthaige amal ata ‘a, o’, alt eter da aimsir and. Aenfid i ndialt, a do i recomarc 7rl. .i. primfid no forfid.


Is airi sin ni talla in trefoghur i n aendialt. [1435]

Ocht sillaba isan focul is mo isan Gaedilc, ut est: ‘fiannamailcecheterdarai 7 anrocomrai[rc]nicsiumairne’, 7rl.

Tri sillaba deg immorro isin focul is mo isin Laitin, ut est ‘tinerificabilitudinetaitibus. //

Iss e int ainm airmi .i. a tri no [a] ceithir. It eat [1440] na hanmanda uird airmi immorro, primus et sequndus et tercius, .i. anmand a n airmi iar prois 7 a n anmand uird airmi immorro iar n aicned.

Is i sin an deochair, airim anforbthe, amal ata a iii no a v, ar nocho nfuillter (fogailter) o choitibh.

Airim [1445] forbthe, ut est a se: a aen fo se, a do fo thri, a tri fo do. Airim forbthi insin, uair airissid o choitibh co coir. .Airim ollforbthe, ut est a do dec .i. a haen a haile dec, a do a sessed, a tri a ceathramthu, a cethri a trian, a se a ceirtleath samlaidh, amal rogabh a do dec .i. a aen 7 [1450] a do 7 a tri a se sin; 7 a ceithri iarsin conid a deich sin; 7 a se iarsin conid a se dec samhlaid. Conid airimh in sain is fuilliu anda coit tria taithmet a lethe. Is cach coitidi is randaidhi, 7 ni cach randaigi is choitide, 7rl.

Cest, cie roaig dialt i mmeit 7 i llaiget? Ni ansa. [1455] Dialt co ceill .i. coic litri and a n as mode, aenlitir immorro a n as lughude .i. ic sluinn cheilli comlaine, amal ata ‘o’ no ‘i’.

Dialt didiu bunad cacha Gaedelge acht mod 7 tod 7 troth. Cid fodera nach bunadh doibh sein? Ni ansa. Ar is dialt cach ai dhibh, 7 ni bunad in raet [1460] do fen,

no dono is bunadh cach Gaedelge dialt acht mod 7 tod 7 troth. Acht is momo lem and chena nidat bunad Gaedelge acht is bunad ceilli.


Caite in cenel dianad bunadh? Ni ansa. .i. mod cach ferda .i. gach ball ferda 7 cach comna ferda; 7 todh cach mbanda .i. cach ball [1465] banda 7 cach comna banda; 7 troth cach neoturda .i. // nach neachtardae .i. cach comna nemeguscda;

no dano nidat dialta etir 7 nidat bunad Gaedelge iarum mod 7 dod 7 traet acht ad bunada ceniuil ut dicitur acht atat arae sin araile Gaedelge dianad bunad, amal roghabh [1470] mod .i. mo a ed i n airde; no mod .i. mo od .i. od ceol intan is mascal .i. moo in ceol. Is moo quam in ceol is lughu, amal roghabh ind aidbsi i nDruim Ceata .
i. tood no to od, tae a ed intan as femen, no tod .i. to od .i. tod in ceol .i. in ceol bec .i. cronan no certan bec i [1475] n-­aith[fh]egad in moir (.i. in ceol is mo). Traeth .i. treith a ed no a odh fri fedhadh mascail 7 femin, no traeth iarsinni traethait na ciulu isli na ciuil arda .i. stocairecht no cornairecht. Gne n-aile no mod .i. mo a ed i n airdi intan is torand no is crand. Todh .i. tae a ed intan is fod, [1480] . . . son aile is taitiu innas in aill. Traeth .i. traethait, a thraethas intan is fet; fo bith is caeli 7 is cruaidhi inas inni eli is traet.

Asperaid araili comdis anmand aidmi ciuil. Caidi a ndemnigud? Ni ansa. Mo a od intan is cruit. Tod .i. tai a od: intan as bindi is tuiu 7 [1485] is isliu ata na a n aill. Traeth .i. traethaid in dis eili intan i[s] stocc, fo bith is airdi a [fh]aidh. Is airi is traeth doib.

No dono mod 7 tod 7 traeth .i. anmunda ball ferda 7 band[a] 7 neudarda sin, amal asbert in Laitneoir: nomen membri uiri uel nomen membri [1490] muileiris uel nomen membri neutri; 7 it focail Grecda sin // ciasu Laitine ata deismireacht dib 7 nac[h] dad dialta, ar nis­filet o neoch 7 ni fuilter uaitib acht mine derntar mod for mod 7 tod for tod 7 traeth for traeth. Secundum quosdam cumad etarscarad indsci: ‘Isse, issi, issed’, iar [1495] Macaib Miled: ‘uindius, uindsi, ondor’, iar Feraib Bolg: mod, tod, traeth, iar Tuathaib De Danand. Iss e so tra a cumair .i. is e bunad gach Gaedelge .i. dialt .i. o recomrac co bricht; 7 ni bunad he d’aensillaib amal (rogab) mod 7 tod 7 traeth; 7 iar cach dialt tucad side sund, 7 is [1500] aire rotathmetaid side sech gach dialt, ar dochuaidh menma friu comtis recomraig: air fogabar a condaill .i. a caindeligud, ut diximus. No dno mod 7 tod 7 traeth a n anmand na mball ferda 7 banda 7 neoturda, amal asbert in Laitneoir: Nomen membri uirilis et nomen membri mulie­bris [1505] 7 nomen membri neutri, 7 it focail Grecda sin cidh i Laitin ata desmireacht dibh: 7 is airi nach at dialta, ar ni fil[et] o neoch 7 ni filter uaidibh acht meni derntar mod for mod 7 tod fri tod 7 traeth fri traeth.

Domiditer alta uad .i. toimsiter aisti inn aircetail fri haltaibh na ndaeni [1510] amal toims[i]ter fri cach indsce.


Cindas toimsiter fri cach insci? .i. corop cach dialt frecras [s]a di araili, amal ata ‘tis tuas’, air is ed a chubhaidh intan is cobfhidh, 7 is cobfhid in focal ind imfrecra 7 is comdeach in tarmfortcend. //

(1302-1338 temporarily after 1514)
It e coic gne in berla tobaidi, .i. berla Fene, 7 fasaige na filed 7 berla etarsgarta 7 berla forttide na filed triasa n agaillit cach dib a chele 7 iarmberla,

amal rogab: [1305] ‘Cuic’, .i. ruin; Et ‘ballorb’, .i. ball do forbau na filideachta aicce, no is do chanaid is ain; Et ‘muirne’, .i. miruin no miruine.

Gne n aill do iarmberla, .i. ‘iarum 7 dno 7 atat 7 tra 7 immorro 7 edon 7 iar 7 ar 7 cest 7 cair 7 cisne 7 caidat 7 ni ansa’ 7rl. Gne n aill dno, .i. ‘forsna (.i. feraib) 7 [1310] fona 7 esna 7 tresna, sec[h]na’: it e na lorga fuach in sin lasin filid. Gne n aill dano, .i. ‘he es em co tre tair do o fo // fair’: dialt n etarlemmi in sin lasin filid. iarmberla tra cosin annuas. Is aire raiter iarmberla de .i. ara se[c]dacht amal iarunn, da fedtar a thaithmeach.

No iarmberla .i. [1315] berla ranig Iar mac Nema fo dheoidh 7 ni fetar a thaithmeach.

Ocus berla n edarsgarta eter na fedaibh aireghdaibh, .i. berla tresa fuil deliugud na fid n aire[gh]da isin aenfhocul triana n inde taithmeach, ut est (amal rogabh): ‘ros’ .i. roi [1320] oiss, quando (.i. intan) as rois caelli 7 rass iar lind, intan as ros usce .i. rofhos mad for marbusce no roidh ass mad for sruth 7 ro as intan as ros lin .i. ara luas 7 ara thigi asas.

Ocus a mberla forteidi .i. fordorcha no ruamanta inna filideachta, amal asrubairt in file hi scuil [1325] Feniusa: ‘Etaill aro ni anfem de’, .i. ‘i’ inis; ‘etall’ .i. uasal 7 ‘aro’ .i. imramh .i. ni anfem de imram co risam in innsi n uasail .i. Eiri no Espain, no is Espain eicin, amal rogab i nImagallaim na Da Thuar: “Brimon smetrac[h]”. Berla na filed so .i. in gne deidinach i[s] sund, .i. ‘bri’ .i. briathar, [1330] ‘mon’ .i. cleas, 7 ‘smit’ .i. cluas, 7 ‘forrach’ .i. rigi; no ‘bri’ .i. briathar, 7 ‘mon’ .i. cleas, 7 ‘smetrach’ .i. smit forrach .i. co forrgidis neach. Cleas bratharda sin donidis na filid oc ecnuch .i. smit a cluaisi do gabail ina laimh .i. amal nac[h] fil cnaim sund ni raib eneach iconti egnaigeas [1335] in fili.

Iss e in coic(ed) gne in gnat[h]berla fogni do cac[h], // (ar) asberad araili comad e in berla Feini fasaigi na filed, 7 conach berla fo leith etir.



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