This explorative study is searching for ways to embed knowledge on the time-space patterns of activity and mobility behaviour of people in the making of urban designs and plans by exploring the conceptualization of time in relation to space and the integration of research and design within a selection of urban design and planning practices that have emerged since the 1990s and which consider both the temporal and the spatial organisation of cities.
Since the 1990s an intense debate on the core of the domain of urban design and planning (stedebouwkunde) is taking place in the Netherlands. An important development in this debate is the shift in sociological, geographical and planning theory towards an approach to urban design and planning tasks based on so-called network thinking. A key element in network thinking on cities is the way in which people’s daily activities and movements weave together urban systems into a whole.
This is important in urban design and planning, because the physical-spatial organization of cities sets the conditions for these activities and mobility to take place. However, knowledge on the temporospatial activity and mobility patterns of people is not structurally embedded in the body of knowledge of urban design and planning. Moreover, these patterns of behaviour seem to have been changing over the past decades to such a degree that there is a call for new principles for urban planning (Wetenschappelijke Raad voor Regeringsbeleid, 2002).
In this context, the PhD-thesis aims to contribute to the body of knowledge on network-oriented urban design and planning with the development of exemplar approaches for embedding such knowledge in the making of urban designs and plans.
Description of Work
A key problem in embedding knowledge on activity and mobility patterns of people in the making of urban design and plans is the so-called ‘applicability gap’ (Hillier, Musgrove & O’Sullivan, 1972; Klaasen, 2004), i.e. the problem that while relevant empirical knowledge is available, such knowledge has proven difficult to integrate (apply) in design and planning processes. Three types of possible causes have been identified for the applicability gap: structural, i.e. embedded in educational and institutional settings; methodological, i.e. embedded in design, research and planning processes; and, epistemological, i.e. embedded in the way in which research, planning and design problems are formulated differently (e.g. Sancar, 1996; cf. Klaasen, 2004).
While much work has already gone into tackling the structural and methodological issues - with only limited success - relatively little work has been done on solving the applicability gap problem from an epistemological viewpoint. With the use of an explorative multiple-case study, the PhD-thesis approaches the applicability gap from this point of view.
The conducted multiple-case study explores the possibilities and limitations of three different approaches to the applicability gap problem: the introduction of tracking technologies (e.g. GPS), the introduction of the Dutch layers approach (lagenbenadering) and the introduction of time planning in the domain of urban planning. The exploration focuses on the discovery of exemplars from these case studies to tackle the applicability gap by reframing urban design and planning questions so that they imply the embedding of knowledge of activity and mobility patterns of people in the making of urban designs and plans.
Projected publication output
PhD-thesis ‘Time-space in urban design and planning’ (to be submitted 2010)
Journal article on visualising time-space in the context of urban planning and deisgn
Achieved publication output (updateable)
Edited books Dupuy, G., Schaick, J van (Ed.), Klaasen, I.T. (ed.). (2008). Urban Networks - Network Urbanism (Design/Science/Planning). Amsterdam: Technepress.
Schaick, J van & Spek, SC van der (Eds.). (2008). Urbanism on Track. Application of tracking technologies in Urbanism (Research in Urbanism Series, Vol. 1). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Journal articles Spek, SC van der, Schaick, J van, Bois, PG de & Haan, HP de (2009). Sensing Human Activity: GPS Tracking. Sensors, 3033-3055.
Selection of Book chapters Schaick, J van (2008). Tracking Research - An Agenda for Urban Design and Planning. In J van Schaick & SC van Spek (Eds.), Urbanism on Track. Apllication of tracking technologies in Urbanism (Research in Urbanism Series, Vol. 1) (pp. 183-196). Amsterdam: IOS Press.
Schaick, J van & Klaasen, IT (2008). Introducing Urban Networks - Network Urbanism. In IT Klaasen, J van Schaick & G Dupuy (Eds.), Urban Networks - Network Urbanism (Design/Science/Planning) (pp. 11-16). Amsterdam: Technepress.
Schaick, J van (2007). Europese beleidspraktijken in tijdruimteplanning. In L.C Tummers (Ed.), Over(al)tijd: de achtergronden (pp. 50-57).
Schaick, J van (2007). Developing a complex of time definitions in the context of urbanism: towards representing time in relation to space. In FD van Hoeven & HJ Rosemann (Eds.), Urbanism Laboratory for Cities and Regions. Progress of Research Issues in Urbanism 2007 (pp. 107-122). Delft: IOS Press.
Schaick, J van (2005). Integrating the social and spatial aspects of the urban system : Comparing the models of Heeling, Dupuy, Castells and Lefebvre. In ED Hulsbergen, IT Klaasen & I Kriens (Eds.), Shifting sense : Looking back to the future in spatial planning (pp. 251-263). Amsterdam: Techne Press.
Selection of conference papers Schaick, J van & Klaasen, IT (2009). The Dutch layer approach - a turn-of-the-century phenomenon or fundamental approach to urban design and planning tasks?. In AESOP; Univ. of Liverpool (Ed.), Book of Abstracts. 23rd AESOP Congress. University of Liverpool. (pp. 1-20). Liverpool: Univ. of Liverpool - AESOP.
Schaick, J van (2009). Towards a conceptual framework for time-space visualisations in tracking studies: gaps and ways forward. In H Harder, T. Sick Nielsen, J Marjgaard Krarup & C Harder (Eds.), Urbanism & urban qualities. New data and methodologies. Proceedings (pp. 7-15). Aalborg: Aalborg Universitet.
Klaasen, IT, Rooij, RM & Schaick, J van (2007). Network cities: Operationalising a strong but confusing concept.. In P Boelhouwer, D Groetelaers & E Vogels (Eds.), ENHR 2007 Conference Sustainable Urban Areas. (pp. 1-11). Rotterdam: ENHR.
Schaick, J van & Klaasen, IT (2007). Dynamics of urban networks as basis for the redevelopment of layer approaches. In G Bruyns, A Fuchs, MJ Hoekstra, VJ Meyer & A van Nes (Eds.), 4th International Seminar on Urbanism and Urbanization. The European Tradition in Urbanism - and its Future. International PhD conference. (pp. 135-142). Delft: IFoU.