Praise for Zara Phillips



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Praise for Zara Phillips

The resolutely male-oriented sports

pages of the Guardian Weekly over

the past few years have managed to

keep all but a handful of females well

at bay, so I experienced a ripple of

excitement when I saw that Zara

Phillips1) had made it through the

barriers (Crowning glory,

September 1). Triumph was shortlived,

however, when I realised that

she was there not in recognition of

her unquestionable talent and skill as

a horsewoman and sportswoman but

as a convenient target for a cheap bit

of sarcasm and royal-bashing.

As it happens, I am not a royalist,

but I am a sportswoman and am

capable of giving acknowledgement

and credit where they are due, even if

the person is, heaven forbid, both

female and royal.



Susan Garvin
Vicchio di Mugello, Italy
noot 1 Zara Phillips is a granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth

Tekst 2

The Flip Side of Internet Fame

By Jessica Bennett

1 In 2002, Ghyslain Raza, a chubby Canadian teen, filmed himself acting out a fight scene from “Star Wars” using a makeshift light saber. His awkward performance was funny, in part because it wasn’t meant to be. And it certainly was never meant to be public: for nearly a year the video remained on a shelf in Raza’s school’s TV studio, where he’d filmed it. Sometime in 2003, though, another student discovered the video, digitized it and posted it online—and Raza’s nightmare began. Within days, “Star Wars Kid” had become a viral frenzy. It was posted on hundreds of blogs, enhanced by music and special effects, and watched by millions. Had that teenager wanted to be famous, he couldn’t have asked for anything better. But in Raza’s case it became a source of public shame and embarrassment, precisely what every kid fears the most.


2 Razas of the world take note: among the generation that’s been reared online, stories

like this are becoming more and more common. They serve as important reminders of a dark side of instant internet fame: humiliation. Already dozens of websites exist solely for posting hateful rants about ex-lovers (DontDateHimGirl.com) and bad tippers (the S----ty Tipper Database), and for posting cell-phone images of public bad behaviour (hollabackNYC.com) and lousy drivers. Such sites can make or break a person, in a matter of seconds.


3 Public shaming, of course, is nothing new. Ancient Romans punished wrongdoers by

branding them on the forehead. In Colonial America heretics were clamped into stocks in the public square, thieves had their hands or fingers cut off, and adulterers were forced to wear a scarlet A. More recently a U.S. judge forced a mail thief to wear a sign announcing his crime outside a San Francisco post office; in other places sex offenders have to post warning signs on their front lawns.


4 Although social stigma can be a useful deterrent, “the internet is a loose cannon,” says

ethicist Jim Cohen of Fordham University School of Law in New York. Online there are few checks and hardly any monitoring. Moreover, studies show that the anonymity of the net encourages people to say things they normally wouldn’t. Some sites have turned into a stage for bigoted rants and stories that identify people by name.


5 Regulators find such sites hard to control. Laws on free speech and defamation vary

widely between countries. In the United States, proving libel requires the victim to show that his or her persecutor intended malice, while the British system puts the burden on the defense to show that a statement is not libelous (making it much easier to prosecute). A 1996 U.S. law specifically protects the operators of websites from liability for the speech of their users. (If AOL, say, were held responsible for every poster, it would quickly go out of business.)


6 So, then, what’s to stop a person from posting whatever he wants about you, if he can do so anonymously and suffer no repercussions? For people who use blogs and socialnetworking sites like diaries, putting their personal information out there for the world to see, this presents a serious risk.
7 Shaming victims, meanwhile, have little legal recourse. Many people share IP addresses on college networks or Wi-Fi hotspots, and many websites hide individual addresses. Even if a victim identifies the defamer, bloggers aren’t usually rich enough to pay big damage awards. Legal action may only increase publicity—the last thing a shaming victim wants.
8 Once unsavory information is posted, it’s almost impossible to retrieve. The family of

the “Star Wars Kid,” who spent time in therapy as a result of his ordeal, filed suit against the student who uploaded his video, and settled out of court. But dozens of versions of his video are still widely available, all over the net. If the “Star Wars Kid” has anything to teach us, it’s that shame, like the force, will always be with you.



Tekst 3

Beatles and the Bard



Martin Wainwright
1 William Shakespeare’s 400-year reign as the

world’s primary transmitter of the English

language has finally been ended − by John,

Paul, George and Ringo and their album

Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band.
2 An academic conference heard yesterday that

the collection of songs − released more than 40

years ago with perhaps the most famous sleeve1)

in music history − has overtaken Shakespeare’s

Hamlet and Romeo and Juliet as a global

cultural reference point.


3 Catching a mood, pioneering social trends and

drawing skilfully on its musical predecessors,

the 1967 album hit every possible cultural

button, delegates at Leeds University were told. “With Sergeant Pepper, the Beatles

addressed the effects of a huge shift in the western mindset in the middle of the 20th

century,” said Thomas MacFarlane of New York University.


4 Jayne Sheridan, of Huddersfield University, said: “When I was a teenager, I was taught that a new study on Hamlet was published every day somewhere in the world. Today that honour goes to Sergeant Pepper.”
5 The power of the collection was rooted in mass

culture, Deena Weinstein of DePaul University,

Chicago, told the conference. “Not only the

songs, but Sir Peter Blake’s sleeve, are filled

with riddles and mysteries which have had

enormous popular appeal,” she said.


6 Some riddles were planted by the artist and at

least 10 collaborators, but others were fostered

by fans, including the deep-rooted myth that the

album forecast McCartney’s death. Evidence for

this included supposed messages in the pattern

of flowers and the letters OP on the singer’s armband, which were alleged to be the first part of the American acronym OPD, for Officially Pronounced Dead. “In fact, the band was borrowed from the Ontario Province Police in Canada,” said Professor Weinstein.

Vragen:

Tekst 1 Praise for Zara Phillips
1 Which of the following is in accordance with the point made by Susan Garvin in

her letter?



A Female royals should be reported on just as respectfully as anyone else by

the press.



B She herself would only write an article about royals if they had done

something worth mentioning.



C The Guardian Weekly should have focused on Zara Phillips’s achievements

rather than on her background.



D Zara Phillips deserves praise for not letting her royal status get in the way of

her sports career.


Tekst 2 The flip side of Internet fame
2 How is the subject matter of the article introduced by the author in paragraph 1?

A By explaining what her personal interest is in the subject.

B By giving one example of what the subject is about.

C By highlighting the comical aspects of the subject.

D By putting the subject in a historical perspective.

E By warning about the dangers attached to the subject.
3 Welk woord uit alinea 2 geeft kernachtig aan wat “The Flip Side of Internet

Fame” (titel) is?

Noteer dit woord (in het Engels of in het Nederlands).
4 What is the main function of paragraph 3?

A To condemn the methods used for shaming people in public.

B To emphasise the importance of public shaming for a society.

C To put the issue of public shaming in a broader context.

D To show that public punishments have gradually become less cruel.

“the internet is a loose cannon” (alinea 4)



5 Welke twee verschillende redenen voor deze uitspraak worden in alinea 4

genoemd?


6 Geef voor elk van de onderstaande beweringen aan of deze wel of niet

overeenstemt met de inhoud van de alinea’s 5, 6 of 7.

1 Amerikaanse bedrijven die sites op het internet aanbieden worden

verantwoordelijk gesteld voor wat gebruikers doen op die sites.

2 In Amerika is het makkelijker om als slachtoffer van internetmisbruik via de

rechter schadevergoeding te krijgen dan in Groot-Brittannië.

3 Mensen die het slachtoffer zijn van internetterreur wordt aangeraden hier

altijd aangifte van te doen.

4 Mensen die hun persoonlijke informatie op het internet zetten, moeten er zelf

voor zorgen dat er geen misbruik van hun gegevens wordt gemaakt.

5 Mensen die via internetsites anderen in een kwaad daglicht zetten lopen

weinig risico hiervoor gestraft te worden.

6 Slachtoffers van internetfraude slagen er steeds vaker in hun geld terug te

krijgen van de mensen die hen opgelicht hebben.

Noteer het nummer van elke bewering, gevolgd door “wel” of “niet”.

7 What can be concluded from paragraph 8?

The “Star Wars Kid”



A started the first internet hype.

B still remains a Star Wars fan.

C was only in part compensated for his trauma.

D was proven to be mentally disturbed.

Tekst 3 Beatles and the Bard
“the collection … reference point” (alinea 2)

8 In welke van de alinea’s 3 tot en met 6 wordt deze bewering in andere woorden

herhaald?



A alinea 3

B alinea 4

C alinea 5

D alinea 6

9 Welke twee van de volgende elementen worden genoemd als factoren die

bijdroegen aan het succes van het album “Sergeant Pepper’s Lonely Hearts

Club Band”?

1 De hoes van het album.

2 De raadselachtige verwijzingen naar Shakespeare.

3 De liedjes zelf.



4 De tragische dood van één van de leden van de groep.
A 1 en 2

B 1 en 3

C 1 en 4

D 2 en 3

E 2 en 4

F 3 en 4



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