Referenties: Ashton, H. (1994). Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. Drugs, 48, 25-40



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Artikel:

psychopharmaca Depressie:
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Copyright 2007, Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, Houten

Het artikel Psychofarmaca komt uit het handboek ‘Klinische Psychologie. Het artikel is geschreven door W. van den Burg. Het handboek is uitgekomen in december 1998.

W. van den Burg:

Over de persoon zelf vind je niets terug op het internet. Je vind alleen iets terug als zijn en een titel van één van zijn boeken.

Een ander boek door hem geschreven is:


  • Burg, W. van den (1998a). De (in)effectiviteit van psychofarmaca

Tussentitels:

1. Inleiding



    1. Geschiedenis

1.2 Indelingen en nomenclatuur

1.3. Acute, voortgezette en profylactische behandelingen

2. Antipsychotica

2.1. Toepassing bij schizofrene psychoses

2.2. Andere toepassingen

2.3. Atypische antipsychotica

3. Lithium

4. Antidepressiva

4.1. Toepassing bij unipolaire depressies

4.2. Toepassing bij angststoornissen

4.3. Andere toepassingen

5. Anxiolytica

5.1. Toepassing van benzodiazepinen bij angststoornissen

5.2. Andere toepassingen van benzodiazepinen

6. Farmacotherapie versus psychotherapie: enkele opmerkingen

6.1. Effectiviteitsvergelijkingen; korte termijn versus lange termijn

6.2. De waarde van combinatiebehandelingen

Ik vind dit een goede structuur. Alles is heel duidelijk



Artikel:

Inhoud
1. Inleiding


2. Antipsychotica
3. Lithium
4. Antidepressiva
5. Anxiolytica
6. Farmacotherapie versus psychotherapie: enkele opmerkingen
Literatuur
1. Inleiding
1.1. Geschiedenis
Men kan zeggen dat precies vijftig jaar geleden, in 1949, de moderne farmacotherapie van psychische stoornissen zijn intrede deed. Toen berichtte de Australische psychiater Cade dat tien manische patiënten na toediening van lithium praktisch geheel herstelden, terwijl drie zeer geagiteerde patiënten met ‘dementia praecox’ ‘became quiet and amenable for the first time in years’. In de daarop volgende tien jaar werden alle prototypes van het huidige arsenaal aan middelen ontdekt. Van de voordien voorgeschreven medicatie wordt bijkans niets meer gebruikt.

De ontdekkingen waren toevalsbevindingen. Onder ‘toeval’ moet ongeveer verstaan worden: iemand onderzocht een stof om een reden die niet direct verband hield met de uiteindelijke, belangrijkste toepassing en observeerde bij mens of dier onverwachte gedragsveranderingen; deze waarnemingen vormden de grondslag om de effectiviteit bij bepaalde (andere) patiëntengroepen te onderzoeken. Als vervolg op de toevalsontdekkingen werd en wordt zeer uitgebreid onderzoek gedaan naar de lichamelijke basis van de werkzaamheid van de middelen, teneinde effectievere stoffen te vinden. Zeer vele psychofarmaca zijn nu op de markt gebracht, maar echte nieuwe doorbraken zijn tot nu toe uitgebleven. Wel vertonen de nieuwe middelen door de bank genomen (wat) minder ongewenste effecten/ bijwerkingen. Vanwege de veelsoortigheid daarvan kunnen deze in het bestek van dit hoofdstuk nauwelijks ter sprake komen; zie hiervoor bijvoorbeeld Moleman (1998). Ook zij verwezen naar een apart supplement van het Journal of Clinical Psychiatry dat geheel gewijd is aan mogelijke problemen bij het stoppen van het gebruik van de nieuwe, serotonerge antidepressiva ( Schatzberg, 1997); hierover wordt in toenemende mate gerapporteerd.




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