Supplementary Data 1



Dovnload 395.91 Kb.
Datum19.08.2016
Grootte395.91 Kb.
Supplementary Data 1
The conventional and AMS 14C dates from the Upper Egyptian and Lower Nubian Nile valley. In this list all 14C dates from Upper Egypt and Nubia are collected, with the exclusion of dates that have a standard error of 1000 yr or more. It should be remembered that most of the dates are already the result of older pretreatment procedures, not always with sufficient correction of the fractionation. We included also dates that are not directly related to a Late Palaeolithic site but which are correlated to the Late Pleistocene Nilotic deposits.


Sitte

Longitude

Latitude

Layer

Sample

Phase

Lab code

uncal BP

±

Comment

Reference

Nag el Ezba

32.101

26.283

palaeolithic

Land snails

Late palaeolithic

GrN-11672

15750

230

 

Vermeersch, Gijselings, Paulissen 2000

Nag el Ezba

32.101

26.283

palaeolithic

Organic soil material

Late palaeolithic

GrN-11673

12230

70

 

Vermeersch, Gijselings, Paulissen 2000

Makhadma 2, late pal

32.622

26.208

 C

Charcoal

Isnan

GrN-12029

12060

280

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 2, late pal.

32.622

26.208

 C

Charcoal

Isnan

GrN-12030

12270

100

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 2, late pal.

32.622

26.208

 C

Charcoal

Isnan

GrN-12031

13330

170

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 4, late pal

32.643

26.207

C

Charcoal

Silsilian/Afian

GrN-12986

12340

70

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 4, late pal.

32.643

26.207

C

Charcoal

Silsilian/Afian

GrN-12032

12790

170

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 4, late pal.

32.643

26.207

C

Charcoal

Silsilian/Afian

GrN-12033

12570

80

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 4, late pal.

32.643

26.207

C

Charcoal

Silsilian/Afian

GrN-12034

12940

130

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 4, late pal.

32.643

26.207

C

Charcoal

Silsilian/Afian

GrN-12981

12320

100

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 4, late pal.

32.643

26.207

C

Charcoal

Silsilian/Afian

GrN-12984

12410

120

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 4, late pal.

32.643

26.207

C, feature 14

Charcoal

Silsilian/Afian

GrN-12985

12410

60

 

Van Neer, Paulissen, Vermeersch 2000

Makhadma 1

32.627

26.207

 

Charcoal

 

I-3440

13380

770

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Kumbelat "Nagaa Kom Bilal?"

32.726

25.954

 

Carbonaceous sand

no archeology (burnt red layer)

I-3424

12500

230

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El Abadiya 3

32.698

25.841

 

Charcoal

Isnan

KIA-14812

11620

55

 

Vermeersch, Van Neer, Gullentops 2006

El Abadiya 3

32.698

25.841

GSLME 1/ 9/21 8

Charcoal

Isnan

KIA-14813

12520

70

 

Vermeersch, Van Neer, Gullentops 2006

Deir el Abiad

32.701

25.837

 

Unspecified moluscan shell

 

GrN-8640

12230

60

 

Close 1988

Nag el Zamami, E71C2

32.692

25.800

 

Burned Unio shell

Isnan

I-3427

16830

300

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Isna E71K9

32.470

25.420

 

Burnt clay

Idfuan

I-5150

14390

200

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Isna E71K9X

32.470

25.420

 

Carbonate plant replacement

base of dune

I-3420

16830

290

minimal age

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Isna E71K12

32.471

25.404

 

Shell

Fakhurian

SMU-365

19000

365

 

Close

Isna, E71K14A

32.470

25.402

 

Carbonaceous sand

base of diatomaceous unit

I-3421

12690

240

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Isna E71K1

32.483

25.370

 

Shell

Fakhurian

SMU-1816

19670

180

after correction

Close 1988

Deir El Fakhuri, E71K3

32.482

25.370

 

Unio shell

Fakhurian

I-3415

17590

300

 

Close 1984

Deir El Fakhuri, E71K3

32.482

25.370

 

Unio shell

Fakhurian

I-3416

18020

330

 

Close 1984

Elkab, Predyn burial 65

32.799

25.120

burial 65

Charcoal

 

Lv-1051D

12640

330

 

Gilot 1997

El-Kilh E71P1

32.820

25.059

 

Shell

 

I-3238

16950

350

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El-Kilh E71P1 ,area A

32.820

25.059

trench 2

Unio shell

Idfuan

I-3248

16950

300

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El-Kilh E71P1, area A

32.820

25.059

trench 1

Unio shell

Idfuan

I-3419

17600

300

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El-Kilh E71P1, area B

32.820

25.059

trench 6

Unio shell

Idfuan

I-3249

17250

330

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El-Kilh E71P1, area B

32.820

25.059

trench 6

Unio shell

Idfuan

I-3418

17450

300

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El-Kilh E71P1, area C,

32.820

25.059

trench 5

Unio shell

Kubbaniyan

I-3417

17800

330

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El-Kilh E71P5

32.820

25.059

 

Unio shell

Idfuan?

I-3760

11560

180

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

El-Kilh E71P1, Area A

32.796

25.057

 

Shell

Idfuan

SMU-1817

18180

190

uncorrectedfro fractionation

Close 1984

El-Kilh E71P1, Area C

32.796

25.057

 

Shell

Kubbaniyan-like

SMU-1815

18150

190

 

Close 1984

Gebel Silsila 2A

32.961

24.615

 

Shell Etheria elliptica

 

Y-1806

13850

200

 

Butzer, Hansen 1968

Gebel Silsila 2B, II(B)

32.961

24.615

 

shell

Ballanan/Silsilian

I-5180

14390

200

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Gebel Silsila GS-2B-I

32.961

24.615

 

Charcoal

Ballanan/Silsilian

SMU-123

13240

130

 

Butzer, Hansen 1968

Gebel Silsila GS-2B-I

32.961

24.615

 

Charcoal

Ballanan/Silsilian

Y-1375

13070

160

 

Butzer, Hansen 1968

Gebel Silsila GS-2B-I

32.961

24.615

 

Charcoal

Ballanan/Silsilian

Y-1376

15310

200

 

Butzer, Hansen 1968

Gebel Silsila GS-2B-I

32.961

24.615

 

Shell

Ballanan/Silsilian

Y-1447

13560

120

no fractionation

Schild, Wendorf 2010

Khor El-Sil

32.961

24.615

 

Shell

 

I-1297

17000

600

 

Butzer, Hansen 1968

Gebel Silsila III

32.977

24.606

 

 

Silsilian

?

13566

600

 

Smith 1967

Gebel Silsila III

32.977

24.606

 

 

Silsilian

I-1201

14240

370

 

Smith 1967

Gebel Silsila III

32.977

24.606

 

 

Silsilian

I-1292

14100

450

 

Smith 1967

Gebel Silsila III

32.977

24.606

 

 

Silsilian

M-1551

15200

700

 

Smith 1967

Kom Ombo

32.993

24.568

 

Marl

Masmas formation

I-2060

20300

310

minimal age

Butzer, Hansen 1968

Kom Ombo

32.993

24.568

 

Marl

Masmas formation

I-2178

17100

400

minimal age

Butzer, Hansen 1968

Kom Ombo

32.993

24.568

 

Shell

 

NV-1264

11720

195

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Kom Ombo

32.993

24.568

 

Shell

 

NV-1265

12020

205

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Kom Ombo

32.993

24.568

 

Shell

Sahaba-Darau

Y-1446

12500

120

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Kom Ombo

32.993

24.568

 

Marl

 

I-2179

17400

300

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-5

32.845

24.228

E-81-5

Unio shell

Isnan

SMU-1032

12430

100

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-5

32.845

24.228

 

Bulinus

Isnan

SMU-1366

12590

130

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 2

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-1522

18500

220

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 24

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-1610

18470

180

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

E-78-3

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-997

18470

200

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 24

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2030

17870

140

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 2 /21

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-1520

18110

160

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 23

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-2091

18140

400

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Above Layer 24

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-2092

18080

350

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 5

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1019

18310

570

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 1

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1038

18320

150

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 18

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1137

18660

270

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 18/2

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1150

18590

170

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

 

Charcoal

Post-Fakhurian

SMU-591

18250

290

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 22?

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-596

17930

380

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 2

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-599

16960

210

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layers 3-4

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-994

18080

170

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 7

Date-stone

Kubbaniyan

SMU-995

18500

180

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-4

32.852

24.224

E-81-4

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1037

20690

280

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-4

32.852

24.224

E-81-4

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1131

18440

690

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-82-3

32.841

24.224

E-82-3

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1136

19810

310

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya, E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 2

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2028

18100

140

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya, E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 22

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2029

18000

200

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya, E-78-3

32.841

24.224

Layer 8

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

OxA-103

17150

300

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-6

32.930

24.224

E-81-6

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1033

17370

550

3rd count

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-6

32.930

24.224

E-81-6

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1033b

18010

340

1st count

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-6

32.930

24.224

E-81-6

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1033c

19350

370

2nd count

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-6

32.930

24.224

E-81-6

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1157

19030

180

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-3

32.852

24.223

E-81-3

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1036

18120

670

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-3

32.852

24.223

E-81-3

Charcoal

Fakhurian

SMU-1129

18360

790

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer b

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2034

17490

190

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer c

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

AA-2035

17530

70

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer d

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2036

17560

220

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer e

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2037

17430

280

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer e

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2038

17990

150

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer g

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2039

17210

260

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer c

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1035

17750

180

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer b

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1379

18030

300

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer f

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1380

18130

310

 

Haas 1988

Wadi Kubbaniya E-81-1

32.841

24.223

Layer f

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1463

18350

290

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-7

32.840

24.222

E-87-7rrr 7

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-592

17850

200

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-7

32.840

24.222

Tr 8

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-595

17130

200

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-5f,

32.856

24.222

 

Charcoal

Ballanan/Silsilian

Gd-2094

15830

220

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-9

32.859

24.220

-2 cm

Unio shell

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1226

18230

200

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level b

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2031

17300

160

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level c/d

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2032

17950

225

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level f

Cyperus

Kubbaniyan

AA-2033

17810

150

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level a

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

AA-224B

18020

525

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level c

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-1611

17800

170

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level e

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-1612

17640

140

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level f

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

Gd-2093

17620

340

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level 3

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1016

17710

160

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level b

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1017

17740

170

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level c

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1018

17870

180

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

hearth

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1221

16660

370

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level h

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-1378

17860

320

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level a

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-616

17670

250

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level a

Humates

Kubbaniyan

SMU-617

17380

340

 

Haas 1989

Wadi Kubbaniya E-78-4

32.841

24.220

Level a

Charcoal

Kubbaniyan

SMU-623

17100

540

 

Haas 1989

Tushka site 8905

31.853

22.468

 

Charcoal

Qadan

WSU-315

14500

490

 

de Heinzelin 1968

Egyptian Nubia

31.672

22.351

 

Shell

Sahaba-Darau

Y-1644

12640

400

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Egyptian Nubia

31.672

22.351

 

Shell

Sahaba-Darau

Y-1645

12390

120

 

Wendorf, Schild 1976

Egyptian Nubia, Abu Simbel pit

31.672

22.351

 

Charcoal?

 

Y-1643

13390

120

 

de Heinzelin 1968

Ballana, site 8859

31.623

22.339

 

Charcoal

Halfan

WSU-318

18600

550

 

Marks 1968

Ballana, site 8896

31.623

22.339

 

Charcoal

Ballanan/Silsilian

WSU-329

14000

280

 

de Heinzelin 1968

Faras, Site 330

31.492

22.153

 

Corbicula

microlithic industry

WSU-109

12250

100

 

Wendorf, Schild 1977

Sudanese Nubia Site 3400

31.395

22.067

 

Wood

 

WSU-202

12550

460

 

de Heinzelin 1968

Dabarosa Site 6B27 opposite Wadi Halfa

31.308

21.951

 

 

Ballanan/Silsilian

GXO-120

15100

750

 

de Heinzelin 1968

Wadi Halfa near site 82

31.345

21.946

base of 10m,aggradation

Etheria shell

no industry

I-531

11200

285

 

de Heinzelin 1968

Jebel Sahaba

31.310

21.879

Burial 43

Human bone collagen

Qadan

Pta-116

13740

60

 

Holl 2013

Dabarosa site ANW-3

31.166

21.724

 

 

Late Khormusan

WSU-215

18800

500

 

Wendorf 1968

Khor Musa, site 443

31.219

21.700

 

Charcoal

Halfan

WSU-201

16500

500

 

de Heinzelin 1968

References


Butzer, K.W., Hansen, C.L., 1968. Desert and River in Nubia. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Close, A.E., 1984. Current research and recent radiocarbon dates from northern Africa II. Journal of African History 25, 1-24.

Close, A.E., 1988. Current research and recent radiocarbon dates from Northern Africa III. Journal of African History 29, 145-176.


de Heinzelin, J., 1968. Geological History of the Nile Valley in Nubia, in Wendorf, F., (Ed.), The Prehistory of Nubia, Fort Burgwin Research Center, Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, pp. 19-55.
Gilot, E., 1997. Index general des dates Lv. Liége. Leuven, Studia Praehistorica Belgica 7.
Haas, H., 1989. The Radiocarbon Dates from Wadi Kubbaniya, in Close, A.E., (Ed.), The Prehistory of Wadi Kubbaniya. Southern Methodist. University, Dallas, pp. 274-279.
Holl, A.F.C., 2013. Caring for the dead, building social ties: Behavioral implications of Late Pleistocene burials in the Sahara. Sahara 24, 257-266.
Marks, A. E., 1968. The Halfan Industry, in Wendorf, F., (Ed.), The Prehistory of Nubia, Fort Burgwin Research Center, Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, pp. 392-460.
Schild, R., Wendorf, F., 2010. Late Palaeolithic Hunter-Gatherers in the Nile Valley of Nubia end Upper Egypt, in: Garcea E.A.A., (Ed.), South-Eastern Mediterranean Peoples Between 130,000 and 10,000 Years Ago. Oxbow Books, Oxford and Oakville, pp. 89-125.
Smith, P.E.L., 1967. New investigations in the late Pleistocene archaeology of the Kom Ombo Plain (Upper Egypt). Quaternaria IX, 141-152.
Van Neer, W., Paulissen, E., Vermeersch, P.M., 2000. Chronology, subsistence and environment of the Late Palaeolithic fishing sites of Makhadma-2 and 4, in: Vermeersch, P.M., (Ed.), Palaeolithic living sites in Upper and Middle Egypt. Leuven University Press, Leuven, pp. 271-287.
Vermeersch, P.M., Gijselings, G., Paulissen, E., 2000. Surface Sites, in: Vermeersch, P.M., Palaeolithic Living Sites in Upper and Middle Egypt. Leuven University Press, Leuven, pp. 19-56.
Vermeersch, P.M., Van Neer, W. , Gullentops, F., 2006. El Abadiya 3, Upper Egypt, A Late Palaeolithic Site on the Shore of a Large Nile Lake, in: Kroeper, K., Chlodnicki M., Kobusiewicz M., (Eds.), Archaeology of Early Northeastern Africa, Poznań Archaeological Museum, Poznan, pp. 375-424.
Wendorf, F., (Ed.), 1968. The Prehistory of Nubia. Fort Burgwin Research Center and Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas.
Wendorf, F., Schild, R., 1976. The Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Academic Press, New York.



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