WP03: Study on the use of virtual documents



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Belgian Office for Scientific, Technical and Cultural Affairs

Programme of Scientific Support to the Diffusion of Telecommunications


Sub-programme A - Development of Targeted Pilot Applications

Project VIRLIB (CM/00/04)


WP03: Study on the use of virtual documents

24 juli 2016

Contents

Introduction


PART I: The Legal Framework by Marianne Dujardin (ULB)


I

Issue

II

Copyright : Current Legislation

III

Licences and ECMS

IV

Copyright versus Licencing

V

Legislative Developments Concerning Encryption

VI

Virlib

VII

Consortium

VIII

Conclusion : ILL in Belgium - the use of the electronic documents in VirLib

IX

Recommendations


PART II: Technical aspects by Katrien Behiels (UIA)


I

Inleiding

II

Authentificatie van de eindgebruiker

III

Integriteit van een elektronisch document in een netwerkomgeving

IV

Projecten in verband met elektronische documentlevering

V

Uitgevers en tijdschriftenleveranciers en elektronische documentleverantie

VI

Besluit

VII

Bibliopgraphy


Conclusion

Introduction

The second phase of VirLib started in October 1998. It aims to develop a real delivery service for electronic documents. The first phase of the project examined each aspect of the Belgian virtual library (technical and legislative point of view) and made a modular pilot system for ordering and delivering of documents. During the first phase of the project a first report on legal issues related to the virtual library was produced [in French : Project VirLib (CN/XX/A06) - Deliverable Report T10:Aspects juridiques de la Bibliothèque virtuelle].


VirLib II will "enable the interlibrary loan departments affiliated to the Impala network to deliver directly to the user's workpost, in electronic format, any article asked for by the end user" . VirLib II will also study the technical, commercial and legislative evolution of the diffusion of electronic documents. The technologies for the diffusion of information (security, format of electronic documents, watermarking, meta-data, etc.) are indeed in constant evolution".
The WP03 of VirLib II aims to make a study on the use of virtual documents. The first part of the WP03 will focus on the legal aspects of the use of the electronic document. The second part produced by the UIA will focus on the technical development on the use and the diffusion of virtual documents (authentication of the end user, integrity of the document).

Part 1

The Legal Framework

By Marianne Dujardin (ULB)

Contents of part I


I Issue 8

I Copyright : Current Legislation 10

1. What do we mean by copyright? 10

2 International Context 13

2.1. Copyright Treaties & Conventions 13

2.2. European Directives 15

3. Current Belgian Law 16

3.1. Presentation 16

3.2. Royal Order fixing the author's remuneration 17

3.3. Provision on Public Lending 18

3.4. Legal protection of databases 19

3.5. Future of the law 19

4. Future : The new European draft Copyright Directive 20

4.1. Calendar of the Directive 20

4.2. The text 20



II Licences and ECMS 25

1. Definition 25

2. The reason of Licencing 25

2.1. Protection 26

2.2. Competition 26

3. Current trends - the licence models 27

4. Electronic Copyright Management Systems (ECMS) 27

III Copyright versus Licencing 29

1. Generalities 29

2. Can Copyright Limitations Be Overridden by Contractual Agreements under European Law 29

3. Contract and copyright limits 30

4. Potential Solution 32

4.1. Solution of Compensation 32

4.2. New article in the Directive 33

IV Legislative Developments Concerning Encryption 35

1. International laws and directives 35

1.1. COCOM 35

1.2 Wassenaar Arrangement 35

1.3 OECD 36

1.4 WIPO 37

1.5. UNCITRAL 37

2. European laws and directives 38

2.1. Criminal Procedure Law Connected with Information Technology 38

2.2. Export/import control of dual-use goods 38

2.3. Public Confidentiality Services 39

2.4. Electronic/Digital Signatures 39

3. Regional developments 41

3.1. Belgium 41

3.2. France 42

3.3. Germany 43

3.4. The Netherlands 44

3.5. United Kingdom 46

Bibliography 47

V Virlib 49

1. The Inter-Libraries Loan in the digital world 49

2 ILL in Belgium 53

2.1. The Belgian situation 53

2.2. Ways of delivery in VirLib II 54

3. Legal implications (law & licences) for Virlib 57

1. Summary of the first report 57

2. Belgian law (changes & future evolution) 58

3. European directive on copyright : Legal aspect for VirLib 60

4. Other European projects 64

TUD 64

INIST 64


BLDSC 65

Copyright Fee Paid option 65

Deutsche Bibliothek 67

SUBITO 67

CANDLE 68

Decomate 68

Tolimac 69

VI Consortium 70

1 What is a consortium? 70

Advantages 70

Disadvantages 71

2 Examples 72

United States 72

Europe 72

Belgium 74



VII Conclusion : ILL in Belgium - the use of the electronic documents in VirLib 76

Belgian law 76

European Directive 76

VIII Recommendations 79

Appendix: Consortia in Europe 81

1. Inleiding 89

2. Authentificatie van de eindgebruiker 91

2.1. IP- filtering 91

2.2. Proxies 91

2.3. Pass-through Proxy servers 93

2.4. Credentials 93

2.4.1. Credentials gebaseerd op paswoorden 94

2.4.2. Credentials gebaseerd op certificaten 95

2.4.3. Proxy/credentials hybride schema’s 96

2.5. Kerberos 96

3. Integriteit van een elektronisch document in een netwerkomgeving 98

3.1. Unique identifiers 98

3.1.1. Uniform Resource Locator URL 99

3.1.2. Permanent Uniform Resource Locator PURL 99

3.1.3. Uniform Resource Names URN 99

3.1.4. SICI en BICI 100

3.1.5. De Publisher Identifier Item PII 101

3.1.6. CIS en ISWC 101

3.1.7. Reference linkage 102

3.1.8. Metadata 102

3.1.9. Digital Object Identifier DOI 103

3.2. Digitale watermerken 106

3.3. Cryptografie 108

3.3.1. Symmetrische encryptie 108

3.3.2. Asymmetrische encryptie 109

3.4. Software enveloppes 112

3.5. Besluit 114

4. Projecten in verband met elektronische documentlevering 116

4.1. DECOMATE I en II 116

4.2. TOLIMAC 117

4.3. CANDLE 118

4.4. ECUP+ 119

4.5. EDIL 120

4.6. FASTDOC 120

4.7. BIBDEL 121

4.8. IMPRIMATUR 122

4.9. EDDIS 123

4.10 TULIP 123

4.11 PRIDE 125

4.12 LAMDA 126

5. Uitgevers en tijdschriftenleveranciers en elektronische documentleverantie 127

5.1. Uitgevers, tijdschriftenleveranciers en elektronische documenten 127

5.1.1. Overzicht 127

5.1.2. Elsevier Science 128

5.1.3. Kluwer Online 128

5.1.4. HighWire Press 129

5.1.5. Cambridge University Press 130

5.1.6. Academic Press 130

5.1.7. Wiley InterScience 131

5.1.8. Institute of Physics 132

5.1.9. Tijdschriftenleveranciers: Swetsnet, Information Quest (Dawson) en Ebsco Online 132

5.1.10. Regelingen van bibliotheken in verband met copyright 134

5.2. Alternatieven voor wetenschappelijke communicatie 135

5.2.1. Het ICAAP-project 135

5.2.2. De “Transition from paper” werkgroep 136

5.2.3. Los Alamos pre-print archief 137

5.2.4. SPARC 138

6. Besluit 140

7. Bibliografie 142






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