Referenties: Ashton, H. (1994). Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. Drugs, 48, 25-40

Dovnload 80.16 Kb.
Grootte80.16 Kb.
  1   2   3

psychopharmaca Depressie:

1. Ashton, H. (1994). Guidelines for the rational use of benzodiazepines. Drugs, 48, 25-40.

2. Baldessarini, R.J. (1995). Risks and implications of interrupting maintenance psychotropic drug therapy. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 63, 137-141.
3. Baldessarini, R.J. & Viguera, A.C (1995). Neuroleptic withdrawal in schizophrenic patients. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 189-192.
4. Baldessarini, R.J., Tondo, L., Suppes, T., e.a. (1996a). Pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder throughout the life cycle. In K.I. Shulman, M. Tohen & S.P. Kutcher (Eds.), Mood disorders across the life span (pp. 299-338). New York: Wiley.
5. Baldessarini, R.J., Tondo, L., Faedda, G.L., e.a. (1996b). Effects of the rate of discontinuing lithium maintenance treatment in bipolar disorders. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 57, 441-448.
6. Balkom, A.J.L.M. van, Beurs, E. de, Koele, P., Lange, A. & Dyck, R van (1996). Long-term benzodiazepine use is associated with smaller treatment gain in panic disorder with agoraphobia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 133-134.
7. Balkom, A.J.L.M., Bakker, A., Spinhoven, P., e.a. (1997). A meta-analysis of the treatment of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia: A comparison of psychopharmacological, cognitive-behavioral, and combination treatments. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 185, 510-516.
8. Bebbington, P., & Kuipers, L (1994). The predictive utility of expressed emotion in schizophrenia. Psychological Medicine, 24, 707-718.
9. Belsher, C.G. & Costello (1988). Relapse after recovery from unipolar depression: A critical review. Psychological Bulletin,104, 84-96.
10. Birkenhäger, T.K., Moleman, P., & Nolen, W.A (1995). Benzodiazepines for depression? A review of the literature. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 10, 181-195.
11. Blackburn, I.-M. & Moore, R.G (1997). Controlled acute and follow-up trial of cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy in out-patients with recurrent depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 17, 328-334.
12. Boyer, W.F. & Feighner, J.P (1996). Other uses of the selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors in psychiatry. In J.P. Feighner & W.F. Boyer (Eds.), Selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (pp. 267-289). New York: Wiley.
13. Burg, W. van den (1998a). De (in)effectiviteit van psychofarmaca. Directieve Therapie, 18, 5-68.
14. Burg, W. van den (1998b). De (in)effectiviteit van psychofarmaca, antwoord aan Kahn en Catz. Directieve Therapie, 18, 196-211.
15. Buysse, D.J., Reynolds, C.F., & Houck, P.R (1997). Does lorazepam impair the antidepressant response to nortriptyline and psychotherapy? Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 426-432.
16. Cade, J.F.J. (1949). Lithium salts in the treatment of psychotic excitement. Medical Journal of Australia, 2, 349-352.
17. Colom, F., Vieta, E., Martínez, A., e.a. (1998). What is the role of psychotherapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 67, 3-9.
18. Cunningham Owens, D.G. (1996). Adverse effects of antipsychotic agents. Do newer agents offer advantages? Drugs, 51, 895-930.
19. Dardennes, R., Even, C., Bange, F. & Heim, A (1995). Comparison of carbamazepine and lithium in the prophylaxis of bipolar disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 378-381.
20. Depression guideline panel (1993). Depression in primary care: Vol.2, Treatment of major depression. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: AHCPR publication No. 93-0551.
21. Dorrepaal, E., Nieuwenhuizen, Ch. van, Schene, A. & Haan, R de (1998). De effectiviteit van cognitieve en interpersoonlijke therapie bij depressiebehandeling: een meta-analyse. Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie, 40, 27-39.
22. Emslie, G.J., Rush, A.J., & Weinberg, W.A (1997). A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in children and adolescents with depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 1031-1037.
23. Entsuah, A.R., Rudolph, R.L. & Chitra, R (1995). Effectiveness of venlafaxine treatment in a broad spectrum of depressed patients: A meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31, 759-766.
24. Evans, M.D., Hollon, S.D., DeRubeis, R.J., e.a. (1992). Differential relapse following cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 802-808.
25. Fava, G.A. (1994). Do antidepressant and antianxiety drugs increase chronicity in affective disorders? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 61, 125-131.
26. Fava, G.A. (1995). Holding on: Depression, sensitization by antidepressant drugs, and prodigal experts. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 64, 57-61.
27. Fava, G.A., Grandi, S., Zielezny, M., e.a. (1996). Four-year outcome for cognitive behavioral treatment of residual symptoms in major depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 945-947.
28. Fava, G.A., Rafanelli, C., Cazzaro, M., e.a. (1998). Well-being therapy. A novel psychotherapeutic approach for residual symptoms of affective disorders. Psychological Medicine, 28, 475-480.
29. Fineberg, N.A., Bullock, T., Montgomery, D.B., e.a. (1992). Serotonin reuptake inhibitors are the treatment of choice in obsessive compulsive disorder. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7 (suppl. 1), 43-47.
30. Fisher, R.L., & Fisher, S (1996). Antidepressants for children, is scientific support necessary? Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 184, 99-102.
31. Franchini, L., Gasperini, M., Perez, J., e.a. (1997). A double-blind study of long-term treatment with sertraline or fluvoxamine for prevention of highly recurrent unipolar depression. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 104-107.
32. Frank, E., Kupfer, D.J., Perel, J.M., e.a. (1990). Three-year outcomes for maintenance therapies in recurrent depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1093-1099.
33. Frye, M.A., Ketter, T.A., & Altshuler, L.L (1998). Clozapine in bipolar disorder: Treatment implications for other atypical antipsychotics. Journal of Affective Disorders, 48, 91-104.
34. Ghoneim, M.M. & Mewaldt, S.P (1990). Benzodiazepines and human memory: A review. Anesthesiology, 72, 926-938.
35. Gibbons, R.D., Hedeker, D., Elkin, I., e.a. (1993). Some conceptual and statistical issues in analysis of longitudinal psychiatric data. Application to the NIMH treatment of depression collaborative research program dataset. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 739-750.
36. Gitlin, M.J., Swendsen, J., Heller, T.L. & Hammen, C (1995). Relapse and impairment in bipolar disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1635-1640.
37. Glen, A.I.M., Johnson, A.L., & Shepherd, M (1984). Continuation therapy with lithium and amitriptyline in unipolar depressive illness: A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 14, 37-50.
38. Gloaguen, V., Cottraux, J., Cucherat, M. & Blackburn, I.-M (1998). A meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy in depressed patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 49, 59-72.
39. Goldstein, D.J., Wilson, M.G., Thompson, V.L., e.a. (1995). Long-term treatment of bulimia nervosa. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 660-666.
40. Gould, R.A., Otto, M.W. & Pollack, M.H (1995). A meta-analysis of treatment outcome for panic disorder. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 819-844.
41. Gould, R.A., Otto, M.W., Pollack, M.H. & Yap, L (1997). Cognitive behavioral and pharmacological treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: A preliminary meta-analysis. Behavior Therapy, 28, 285-305.
42. Greil, W., Ludwig-Mayerhoven, W., Erazo, N., e.a. (1996). Comparative efficacy of lithium and amitryptiline in the maintenance treatment of recurrent unipolar depression: A randomized study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 40, 179-190.
43. Greil, W., Ludwig-Mayerhoven, W., Erazo, N., e.a. (1997). Lithium versus carbamezepine in the maintenance treatment of bipolar disorders – a randomised study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 43, 151-161.
44. Greenhouse, J.B., Stangl, D., Kupfer, D.J., & Prien, R.F (1991). Methodologic issues in maintenance therapy clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 313-318.
45. Greist, J.H., Jefferson, J.W., Kobak, K.A., e.a. (1995). Efficacy and tolerability of serotonin transport inhibitors in obsessive-compulsive disorder, a meta-analysis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 53-60.
46. Gutierrez, P.M. & Silk, K.R (1998). Prescription privileges for psychologists. Professional Psychology, 29, 213-222.
47. Hazell, P., O'Connell, D., Heathcote, D., e.a. (1995). Efficacy of tricyclic drugs in treating child and adolescent depression: A meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 310, 897-901.
48. Healy, D. (1989). Neuroleptics and psychic indifference: A review. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 82, 615-619.
49. Healy, D. (1997). The antidepressant era. Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press.
50. Hickie, I., Mason, C., Parker, G. & Brodaty, H (1996). Prediction of ECT response: Validation of a refined sign-based ( CORE) system for defining melancholia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 68-74.
51. Hofman, S.G., Barlow, D.H., Papp, L.A., e.a. (1998). Pretreatment attrition in a comparative treatment outcome study on panic disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 43-47.
52. Hollister, L.E., Müller-Oerlinghausen, B., Rickels, K., & Shader, R.I (1993). Clinical uses of benzodiazepines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 13 (suppl. 1).
53. Hoofdakker, R.H. van den, Berkestijn, J.W.B.M. van (1989). Biologische behandelwijzen. In F.A. Albersnagel, P.M.G. Emmelkamp, R.H. van den Hoofdakker (Red.), Depressie: theorie, diagnostiek en ' vnm='(pp'>behandeling (pp 149-196). Deventer: van Loghum Slaterus.
54. Jacobson, N.S. & Hollon, S.D (1996). Prospects for future comparisons between drugs and psychotherapy: Lessons from the CBT-versus-pharmacotherapy exchange. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64, 104-108.
55. Janicak, P.G., Davis, J.M., Preskorn, S.H., & Ayd, F.J (1993). Principles and practice of psychopharmacology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins.
56. Jefferson, J.W. & Greist, J.H (1994). Lithium in psychiatry, a review. CNS Drugs, 1, 448-464.
57. Jeste, D.V., Gilbert, P.L., McAdams, L.A., & Harris, M.J (1995). Considering neuroleptic maintenance and taper on a continuum. Archives of General Psychiatry, 52, 209-212.
58. Jobson, K.O. (1995). Algorithm for the treatment of panic disorder with agoraphobia. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31, 483-485.
59. Jonas, J.M. & Cohon, M.S (1993). A comparison of the safety and efficacy of alprazolam versus other agents in the treatment of anxiety, panic, and depression: A review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 54 (suppl. 10), 25-45.
60. Jonghe, F. de (1997). Sertraline and imipramine for the treatment of dysthymia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 973.
61. Kan, C.C., Breteler, M.H.M. & Zitman, F.G (1997). High-prevalence of benzodiazepine dependence in out-patient users, based on DSM- III-R and ICD-10 criteria. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96, 85-93.
62. Kane, J.M., Schooler, N.R. & Marder, S.R (1994). Methods for clinical evaluation of pharmacologic treatments of schizophrenia. In R.F. Prien & D.S. Robertson (Eds.), Clinical evaluation of psychotropic drugs (pp. 345-372). New York: Raven Press.
63. Kessing, L.V., Andersen, P.K., Mortensen, P.B., Bolwig, T.G. (1998). Recurrence in affective disorder. I. Case register study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 23-28.
64. Kim, S.C. & Seo, K.K (1998). Efficacy and safety of fluoxetine, sertraline and clomipramine in patients with premature ejaculation: A double-blind, placebo controlled study. Journal of Urology, 159, 425-427.
65. Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., Garety, P., e.a. (1998). London-East Anglia randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy for psychosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 173, 61-68.
66. Kuy, A. van der (eindred.) (1998). Farmacotherapeutisch Kompas 1998. CMPC Ziekenfondsraad.
67. Laakmann, G., Faltermaier-Temizel, M., Bossert-Zaudig, S., e.a. (1995). Treatment of depressive outpatients with lorazepam, alprazolam, amytriptiline and placebo. Psychopharmacology, 120, 109-115.
68. Laakmann, G., Schüle, C., Baghai, T. & Kieser, M (1998). St. John's Wort in mild to moderate depression: The relevance of hyperforin for the clinical efficacy. Pharmacopsychiatry, 31 (suppl.), 54-59.
69. Lader, M. (1994). Benzodiazepines, a risk-benefit profile. CNS Drugs, 1, 377-387.
70. Lemstra, A., Leentjens, A.F.G., & Broek, W.W van den (1996). Slechts tijdelijke resultaten van electroconvulsietherapie bij therapieresistente depressie; retrospectief onderzoek. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 140, 260-264.
71. Lott, M., Greist, J.H., Jefferson, J.W., e.a. (1997). Brofaromine for social phobia: A multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 255-260.
72. McQuay, H.J. (1997). Antidepressants and chronic pain. British Medical Journal, 314, 763-764.
73. McShane, R., Keene, J., Gedling, K., e.a. (1997). Do neuroleptic drugs hasten cognitive decline in dementia? Prospective study with necropsy follow up. British Medical Journal, 314, 266-270.
74. Maj, M., Veltro, F., Pirozzi, R. (1992). Pattern of recurrence of illness after recovery from an episode of major depression: A prospective study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 149, 795-800.
75. Marshall, R.D., & Schneier, F.R (1996). An algorithm for the pharmacotherapy of social phobia. Psychiatric Annals, 26, 210-216.
76. Marshall, R.D., Stein, D.J., Liebowitz, M.R. & Yehuda, R (1996). A pharmacology algorithm in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychiatric Annals, 26, 217-226.
77. Medawar, C. (1992). Power and dependence. Londen: Social Audit Ltd..
78. Moleman, P. (1998). Praktische psychofarmacologie (3e herziene druk). Houten: Bohn Stafleu Van Loghum.
79. Möller, H.J. (1993). Therapeutic strategies in atypical depression. A German perspective. European Psychiatry, 8, 273-276.
80. Moncrieff, J. (1995). Lithium revisited. A re-examination of the placebo-controlled trials of lithium profylaxis in manic-depressive disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 569-573. Commentaar: G.M. Goodwin, 573-574.
81. Moncrieff, J. (1997). Lithium: Evidence reconsidered. British Journal of Psychiatry, 171, 113-119. Commentaar: J. Cookson, 120-124.
82. Moncrieff, J., Wessely, S. & Hardy, R (1998). Meta-analysis of trials comparing antidepressants with active placebos. British Journal of Psychioatry, 172, 227-231.
83. Müller, W.E. & Kasper, S (Eds.)(1997). Hypericum extract ( LI 160) as a herbal antidepressant. Pharmacopsychiatry, 30, suppl. 2., pp. 71-134.
84. Nolen, W.A., Haffmans, P.M.J., Bouvy, P.F., & Duivenvoorden, H.J (1993). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors in resistant major depression. A double-blind comparison of brofaromine and tranylcypromine in patients resistant to tricyclic antidepressants. Journal of Affective Disorders, 28, 189-197.
85. Noyes, R., Moroz, G., Davidson, J.R.T., e.a. Moclobemide in social phobia: A controlled dose-response trial. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 247-254.
86. O'Rourke, D., Fahy, T.J., Brophy, J. & Prescott, P (1996). The Galway study of panic disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 462-469.
87. O'Sullivan, G.H., Swinson, R., Kuch, K., e.a. (1996). Alprazolam withdrawal symptoms in agoraphobia with panic disorder: Observations from a controlled anglo-canadian study. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 10, 101-109.
88. Parker, G., Roy, K., Hadzi-Pavlovic, D., & Pedic, F (1992). Psychotic (delusional) depression: A meta-analysis of physical treatments. Journal of Affective Disorders, 24, 17-24.
89. Paykel, E.S. (1994). The place of antidepressants in long-term treatment. In S.A. Montgomery & T.H. Corn (Eds.), Psychopharmacology of depression (pp. 218-239). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
90. Pilowsky, L.S., Ring, H., Shine, P.J., e.a. (1992). Rapid tranquillization. A survey of emergency prescribing in a general psychiatric hospital. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 831-835.
91. Pollack, M.H. (1997). Psychopharmacology update, pp. 38-40. In Panic disorder: A treatment update. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58, 36-42.
92. Pollack, M.H. & Otto, M.W (1997). Long-term course and outcome of panic disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58 (suppl. 2), 57-60.
93. Potts, N.L.S., & Davidson, J.R.T (1995). Pharmacological treatments: Literature review. In R.G. Heimberg e.a. (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 334-365). New York: Guilford Press.
94. Praag, H.M. van (1988). Psychofarmaca (3e herziene druk). Assen/Maastricht: Van Gorcum.
95. Rickels, K., Downing, R., Schweizer, E., & Hassman, H (1993a). Antidepressants for the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 884-895.
96. Robertson, C. & Eagles, J.M (1997). Review of ECT prescription and outcome in depression. Psychiatric Bulletin, 21, 498-500.
97. Robertson, M.M. & Trimble, M.R (1982). Major tranquillizers used as antidepressants, a review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 4, 173-193.
98. Schatzberg, A.F. (introd.) (1997). Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome: An update of serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, suppl. 7 (39 p.).
99. Schneider, L.S., Pollock, V.E. & Lyness, S.A (1990). A meta-analysis of controlled trials of neuroleptic treatment in dementia. Journal of the American Geriatric Society, 38, 553-563.
100. Schneier, F.R., Goetz, D., Campeas, R., e.a. (1998). Placebo-controlled trial of moclobemide in social phobia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 70-77.
101. Schweizer, E., Rickels, K., & Uhlenhuth, E.H (1995). Issues in the long-term treatment of anxiety disorders. In F.E. Bloom & D.J. Kupfer (Eds.), Psychopharmacology: The fourth generation of progress (pp.1349-1359). New York: Raven Press.
102. Scott, J. (1995). Psychotherapy for bipolar disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 581-588.
103. Simpson, H.B., Hurowitz, G.L. & Liebowitz, M.R (1997). General principles in the pharmacotherapy of antidepressant-induced rapid cycling: A case series. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 460-466.
104. Sobin, C., Prudic, J., Devanand, D.P., e.a. (1996). Who responds to electroconvulsive therapy? A comparison of effective and ineffective forms of treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry, 169, 322-328.
105. Solomon, D.A., Keitner, G.I., Miller, I.W., e.a. (1995). Course of illness and maintenance treatments for patients with bipolar disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 56, 5-13.
106. Song, F., Freemantle, N., Sheldon, T.A., e.a. (1993). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: Meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability. British Medical Journal, 306, 683-687.
107. Thase, M.E., Fava, M., Halbreich, U., e.a. (1996). A placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial comparing sertraline and imipramine for the treatment of dysthymia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 53, 777-784.
108. Thase, M.E., Greenhouse, J.B., Frank, E., e.a. (1997). Treatment of major depression with psychotherapy and psychotherapy-pharmacotherapy combinations. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 1009-1015.
109. Thomas, C.S. & Lewis, S (1998). Which atypical antipsychotic? British Journal of Psychiatry, 172, 106-109.
110. Tiller, J.W.G., & Schweitzer, I (1992). Benzodiazepines. Depressants or antidepressants? Drugs, 44, 165-169.
111. Viguera, A.C., Baldessarini, R.J., Hegarty, J.D., e.a. (1997). Clinical risk following abrupt and gradual withdrawal of maintenance neuroleptic treatment. Archives of General Psychiatry, 54, 49-55.
112. Vlaminck, P. (1998). Regionale aanpak van initiële niet-affectieve psychosen. Maandblad Geestelijke volksgezondheid ( MGV), 53, 361-378.
113. Vorbach, E.U., Arnoldt, K.H., Hübner, W.-D. (1997). Efficacy and tolerability of St. John's wort extract LI 160 versus imipramine in patients with severe depressive episodes according to ICD-10. Pharmacopsychiatry, 30 (suppl.), 81-85.
114. Warner, R. (1994). Recovery from schizophrenia (2nd ed.). London: Routledge.
115. Wilde, M.I., & Benfield, P (1995). Tianeptine. Drugs, 49, 411-439.
116. Wilson, G.T. (1996). Treatment of bulimia nervosa: When CBT fails. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 34, 197-212.
117. Wolkowitz, O.M., & Pickar, D (1991). Benzodiazepines in the treatment of schizophrenia: A review and reappraisal. American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 714-726.
118. Yonkers, K.A. (1997). Antidepressants in the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 58 (suppl. 14), 4-10.
119. Zitman, F.G. (1988). Neuroleptica bij angst, depressiviteit en onbegrepen lichamelijke klachten. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 132, 1380-1383.

Copyright 2007, Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, Houten

Het artikel Psychofarmaca komt uit het handboek ‘Klinische Psychologie. Het artikel is geschreven door W. van den Burg. Het handboek is uitgekomen in december 1998.

W. van den Burg:

Over de persoon zelf vind je niets terug op het internet. Je vind alleen iets terug als zijn en een titel van één van zijn boeken.

Een ander boek door hem geschreven is:

  • Burg, W. van den (1998a). De (in)effectiviteit van psychofarmaca


1. Inleiding

    1. Geschiedenis

1.2 Indelingen en nomenclatuur

1.3. Acute, voortgezette en profylactische behandelingen

2. Antipsychotica

2.1. Toepassing bij schizofrene psychoses

2.2. Andere toepassingen

2.3. Atypische antipsychotica

3. Lithium

4. Antidepressiva

4.1. Toepassing bij unipolaire depressies

4.2. Toepassing bij angststoornissen

4.3. Andere toepassingen

5. Anxiolytica

5.1. Toepassing van benzodiazepinen bij angststoornissen

5.2. Andere toepassingen van benzodiazepinen

6. Farmacotherapie versus psychotherapie: enkele opmerkingen

6.1. Effectiviteitsvergelijkingen; korte termijn versus lange termijn

6.2. De waarde van combinatiebehandelingen

Ik vind dit een goede structuur. Alles is heel duidelijk


1. Inleiding

2. Antipsychotica
3. Lithium
4. Antidepressiva
5. Anxiolytica
6. Farmacotherapie versus psychotherapie: enkele opmerkingen
1. Inleiding
1.1. Geschiedenis
Men kan zeggen dat precies vijftig jaar geleden, in 1949, de moderne farmacotherapie van psychische stoornissen zijn intrede deed. Toen berichtte de Australische psychiater Cade dat tien manische patiënten na toediening van lithium praktisch geheel herstelden, terwijl drie zeer geagiteerde patiënten met ‘dementia praecox’ ‘became quiet and amenable for the first time in years’. In de daarop volgende tien jaar werden alle prototypes van het huidige arsenaal aan middelen ontdekt. Van de voordien voorgeschreven medicatie wordt bijkans niets meer gebruikt.

De ontdekkingen waren toevalsbevindingen. Onder ‘toeval’ moet ongeveer verstaan worden: iemand onderzocht een stof om een reden die niet direct verband hield met de uiteindelijke, belangrijkste toepassing en observeerde bij mens of dier onverwachte gedragsveranderingen; deze waarnemingen vormden de grondslag om de effectiviteit bij bepaalde (andere) patiëntengroepen te onderzoeken. Als vervolg op de toevalsontdekkingen werd en wordt zeer uitgebreid onderzoek gedaan naar de lichamelijke basis van de werkzaamheid van de middelen, teneinde effectievere stoffen te vinden. Zeer vele psychofarmaca zijn nu op de markt gebracht, maar echte nieuwe doorbraken zijn tot nu toe uitgebleven. Wel vertonen de nieuwe middelen door de bank genomen (wat) minder ongewenste effecten/ bijwerkingen. Vanwege de veelsoortigheid daarvan kunnen deze in het bestek van dit hoofdstuk nauwelijks ter sprake komen; zie hiervoor bijvoorbeeld Moleman (1998). Ook zij verwezen naar een apart supplement van het Journal of Clinical Psychiatry dat geheel gewijd is aan mogelijke problemen bij het stoppen van het gebruik van de nieuwe, serotonerge antidepressiva ( Schatzberg, 1997); hierover wordt in toenemende mate gerapporteerd.

  1   2   3

De database wordt beschermd door het auteursrecht © 2019
stuur bericht